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Diamond for stem cell biotechnology

Taylor, AC; (2016) Diamond for stem cell biotechnology. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

The recent rise in life expectancy has led an increase in the number of cases of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and macular degeneration. Traditional therapeutic approaches are ineffective as regeneration is limited in the Central Nervous System (CNS). Neural prosthetics and stem cell therapy present exciting solutions for enabling the function of the brain to be restored. Implanted materials for neuronal prosthetics must have outstanding electrical properties whilst being inert and biocompatible. Diamond fulfils there criteria, and is the focus of this thesis. Results chapter 5 describes a novel approach to pattern diamond to 5 µm resolution, with feature widths of 2 μm. Selective seeding of nanodiamonds (NDs) was performed using a microprinting technique, which was then grown into Nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films via Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) into the desired pattern. The ability to pattern diamond is not only valuable for biomaterial design, but also for photonic and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) prototyping applications. Chapter 6 describes the quantitative investigation as to whether the inclusion of boron in NCD (BNCD) has any observable effect on biocompatibility. The effect of nanostructuring BNCD on biocompatibility was also investigated. The attachment and proliferation of human Neural Stem Cells (hNSCs) was used to assess biocompatibility. Nanostructuring of BNCD was done using a CNT scaffold resulting in a material with increased capacitance. Combining the capacitive increase, wide electrochemical window and demonstrated biocompatibility, diamond has shown to be an ideal material for interfacing with neurons. Chapter 7 describes the investigation into whether NDs support hNSC growth. hNSCs were cultured on hydrogen and oxygen functionalised NDs, and it was discovered that O–NDs promote hNSC adhesion whereas H–NDs do not. Contact angle and protein adsorption measurements were employed to investigate and hypothesise why a difference in hNSC adhesion is observed. Chapter 8 demonstrates the capacity of ND for supporting hNSC differentiation. The effect of varying ND functionalisation on differentiation was investigated, with H– and O–NDs inducing the spontaneous differentiation of hNSCs into neurons. Complimenting results obtained in Chapter 7, O–NDs were best at supporting adhesion and promoting neurite outgrowth.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Diamond for stem cell biotechnology
Event: UCL
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Keywords: diamond, stem cell
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > London Centre for Nanotechnology
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1485768
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