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Genome-wide association study identifies glutamate ionotropic receptor GRIA4 as a risk gene for comorbid nicotine dependence and major depression

Zhou, H; Cheng, Z; Bass, N; Krystal, JH; Farrer, LA; Kranzler, HR; Gelernter, J; (2018) Genome-wide association study identifies glutamate ionotropic receptor GRIA4 as a risk gene for comorbid nicotine dependence and major depression. Translational Psychiatryvolume , 8 (1) , Article 208. 10.1038/s41398-018-0258-8. Green open access

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Abstract

Smoking and major depression frequently co-occur, at least in part due to shared genetic risk. However, the nature of the shared genetic basis is poorly understood. To detect genetic risk variants for comorbid nicotine dependence (ND) and major depression (MD), we conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) in two samples of African-American participants (Yale-Penn 1 and 2) using linear mixed model, followed by meta-analysis. 3724 nicotine-exposed subjects were analyzed: 2596 from Yale-Penn-1 and 1128 from Yale-Penn-2. Continuous measures (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores and DSM-IV MD criteria) rather than disorder status were used to maximize the power of the GWAS. Genotypes were ascertained using the Illumina HumanOmni1-Quad array (Yale-Penn-1 sample) or the Illumina HumanCore Exome array (Yale-Penn-2 sample), followed by imputation based on the 1000 Genomes reference panel. An intronic variant at the GRIA4 locus, rs68081839, was significantly associated with ND-MD comorbidity (β = 0.69 [95% CI, 0.43-0.89], P = 1.53 × 10-8). GRIA4 encodes an AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptor that mediates fast excitatory synaptic transmission and neuroplasticity. Conditional analyses revealed that the association was explained jointly by both traits. Enrichment analysis showed that the top risk genes and genes co-expressed with GRIA4 are enriched in cell adhesion, calcium ion binding, and synapses. They also have enriched expression in the brain and they have been implicated in the risk for other neuropsychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to determine the replicability of these findings and to identify the biological mechanisms through which genetic risk for each condition is conveyed.

Type: Article
Title: Genome-wide association study identifies glutamate ionotropic receptor GRIA4 as a risk gene for comorbid nicotine dependence and major depression
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41398-018-0258-8
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0258-8
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10058142
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