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Improving the Validity of Mathematical Models for Hiv Elimination by Incorporating Empirical Estimates of Progression Through the Hiv Treatment Cascade.

Chang, AY; Haber, N; Bärnighausen, T; Herbst, K; Gareta, D; Pillay, D; Salomon, JA; (2018) Improving the Validity of Mathematical Models for Hiv Elimination by Incorporating Empirical Estimates of Progression Through the Hiv Treatment Cascade. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001852. (In press).

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Optimism regarding prospects for eliminating HIV by expanding antiretroviral treatment has been emboldened in part by projections from several mathematical modeling studies. Drawing from a detailed empirical assessment of rates of progression through the entire HIV care cascade, we quantify for the first time the extent to which models may overestimate health benefits from policy changes when they fail to incorporate a realistic understanding of the cascade. SETTING: Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa METHODS:: We estimated rates of progression through stages of the HIV treatment cascade using data from a longitudinal population-based HIV surveillance system in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Incorporating empirical estimates in a mathematical model of HIV progression, infection transmission, and care, we estimated life expectancy and secondary infections averted under a range of treatment scale-up scenarios reflecting expanding treatment eligibility thresholds. We compared the results to those implied by the conventional assumptions that have been commonly adopted by existing models. RESULTS: Survival gains from expanding the treatment eligibility threshold from CD4 350 to 500 cells/μL and from 500 cells/μL to treating everyone irrespective of their CD4 count may be overestimated by 3.60 and 3.79 times in models that fail to capture realities of the care cascade. HIV infections averted from raising the threshold from CD4 200 to 350, 350 to 500, and 500 cells/μL to treating everyone may be overestimated by 1.10, 2.65, and 1.18 times. CONCLUSION: Models using conventional assumptions about cascade progression may substantially overestimate health benefits. As implementation of treatment scale-up proceeds, it is important to assess the effects of required scale-up efforts in a way that incorporates empirical realities of how people move through the HIV cascade.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC) , where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

Type: Article
Title: Improving the Validity of Mathematical Models for Hiv Elimination by Incorporating Empirical Estimates of Progression Through the Hiv Treatment Cascade.
Location: United States
DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001852
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000001852
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: cascade, longitudinal, treatment as prevention, empirical
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10058107
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