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Defective Autophagy, Mitochondrial Clearance and Lipophagy in Niemann-Pick Type B Lymphocytes

Canonico, B; Cesarini, E; Salucci, S; Luchetti, F; Falcieri, E; Di Sario, G; Palma, F; (2016) Defective Autophagy, Mitochondrial Clearance and Lipophagy in Niemann-Pick Type B Lymphocytes. PLoS ONE , 11 (10) , Article e0165780. 10.1371/journal.pone.0165780. Green open access

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Abstract

Niemann-Pick disease type A (NP-A) and type B (NP-B) are lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) caused by sphingomyelin accumulation in lysosomes relying on reduced or absent acid sphingomyelinase. A considerable body of evidence suggests that lysosomal storage in many LSD impairs autophagy, resulting in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins and dysfunctional mitochondria, ultimately leading to cell death. Here we test this hypothesis in a cellular model of Niemann-Pick disease type B, in which autophagy has never been studied. The basal autophagic pathway was first examined in order to evaluate its functionality using several autophagy-modulating substances such as rapamycin and nocodazole. We found that human NP-B B lymphocytes display considerable alteration in their autophagic vacuole accumulation and mitochondrial fragmentation, as well as mitophagy induction (for damaged mitochondria clearance). Furthermore, lipid traceability of intra and extra-cellular environments shows lipid accumulation in NP-B B lymphocytes and also reveals their peculiar trafficking/management, culminating in lipid microparticle extrusion (by lysosomal exocytosis mechanisms) or lipophagy. All of these features point to the presence of a deep autophagy/mitophagy alteration revealing autophagic stress and defective mitochondrial clearance. Hence, rapamycin might be used to regulate autophagy/mitophagy (at least in part) and to contribute to the clearance of lysosomal aberrant lipid storage.

Type: Article
Title: Defective Autophagy, Mitochondrial Clearance and Lipophagy in Niemann-Pick Type B Lymphocytes
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165780
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165780
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright: © 2016 Canonico et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharmaceutics
URI: http://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10052813
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