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The orthopaedic management of lower limb deformity in hypophosphataemic rickets

Horn, A; Wright, J; Bockenhauer, D; Van't Hoff, W; Eastwood, DM; (2017) The orthopaedic management of lower limb deformity in hypophosphataemic rickets. Journal of Children's Orthopaedics , 11 (4) pp. 298-305. 10.1302/1863-2548.11.170003. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many patients with X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (X-LHPR) demonstrate significant lower limb deformity despite optimal medical management. This study evaluates the use of guided growth by means of hemi-epiphysiodesis to address coronal plane deformity in the skeletally immature child. METHODS: Since 2005, 24 patients with X-LHPR have been referred to our orthopaedic unit for evaluation. All patients had standardised long leg radiographs that were analysed sequentially before and after surgery if any was performed. The rate of correction of deformity was calculated based on peri-articular angles and diaphyseal deformity angles measured at regular intervals using Traumacad software. Clinical records were reviewed to obtain relevant clinical and demographic details. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 23 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS: The indication for surgical intervention was a mechanical axis progressing through Zone 2 or in Zone 3 despite one year of optimised medical treatment. The 15 patients underwent 16 episodes of guided growth (30 limbs, 38 segments) at a mean age of 10.3 years. In four limbs, surgery has only taken place recently; and in three limbs, correction is ongoing. Neutral mechanical axis was restored in 16/23 (70%) limbs: six improved and one limb (one segment) required osteotomy for residual deformity. The mean rate of angular correction per month was 0.3° for the proximal tibia and 0.7° for the distal femur. Patients with ≥ 3 years of growth remaining responded significantly better than older patients (p = 0.004). Guided growth was more successful in correcting valgus than varus deformity (p = 0.007). In younger patients, diaphyseal deformity corrected at a rate of 0.2° and 0.6° per month for the tibia and the femur, respectively. There has been one case of recurrent deformity. Patients with corrected coronal plane alignment did not complain of significant residual torsional malalignment. Serum phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels did not affect response to surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Guided growth is a successful, minimally invasive method of addressing coronal plane deformity in X-LHPR. If coronal plane deformity is corrected early in patients with good metabolic control, osteotomy can be avoided.

Type: Article
Title: The orthopaedic management of lower limb deformity in hypophosphataemic rickets
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1302/1863-2548.11.170003
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1302/1863-2548.11.170003
Language: English
Additional information: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed.
Keywords: Guided growth, hypophosphataemic rickets, lower limb deformity
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Renal Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1575619
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