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After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination

Gomez-Sanchez, JA; Pilch, KS; van der Lans, M; Fazal, SV; Benito, C; Wagstaff, LJ; Mirsky, R; (2017) After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination. Journal of Neuroscience , 37 (37) pp. 9086-9099. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1453-17.2017. Green open access

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Abstract

There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair. Using genetic lineage-tracing and scanning-block face electron microscopy, we show that injury of sciatic nerves from mice of either sex triggers extensive and unexpected Schwann cell elongation and branching to form long, parallel processes. Repair cells are 2- to 3-fold longer than myelin and Remak cells and 7- to 10-fold longer than immature Schwann cells. Remarkably, when repair cells transit back to myelinating cells, they shorten ∼7-fold to generate the typically short internodes of regenerated nerves. The present experiments define novel morphological transitions in injured nerves and show that repair Schwann cells have a cell-type-specific structure that differentiates them from other cells in the Schwann cell lineage. They also provide the first direct evidence using genetic lineage tracing for two basic assumptions in Schwann cell biology: that myelin and Remak cells generate the elongated cells that build Bungner bands in injured nerves and that such cells can transform to myelin cells after regeneration.

Type: Article
Title: After Nerve Injury, Lineage Tracing Shows That Myelin and Remak Schwann Cells Elongate Extensively and Branch to Form Repair Schwann Cells, Which Shorten Radically on Remyelination
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1453-17.2017
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1453-17.2017
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2017 Gomez-Sanchez et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided that the original work is properly attributed.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Neurosciences, Neurosciences & Neurology, injury, nerve, PNS, remyelination, regeneration, Schwann cell, PERIPHERAL-NERVE, C-JUN, WALLERIAN DEGENERATION, AXONAL REGENERATION, FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY, CYCLIN D1, PROLIFERATION, DENERVATION, EXPRESSION, SURVIVAL
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Cell and Developmental Biology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1575224
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