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Clinical and diagnostic features of Bartter and Gitelman syndromes

Walsh, PR; Tse, Y; Ashton, E; Iancu, D; Jenkins, L; Bienias, M; Kleta, R; ... Bockenhauer, D; + view all (2018) Clinical and diagnostic features of Bartter and Gitelman syndromes. Clinical Kidney Journal , 11 (3) 10.1093/ckj/sfx118. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Bartter and Gitelman syndromes are autosomal recessive disorders of renal tubular salt handling. Due to their rarity, limited long-term data are available to inform prognosis and management. / Methods: Long-term longitudinal data were analysed for 45 children with pathogenic variants in SLC12A1 (n = 8), KCNJ1 (n = 8), CLCNKB (n = 17), BSND (n = 2) and SLC12A3 (n = 10) seen at a single centre between 1984 and 2014. Median follow-up was 8.9 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.7–18.1] years. / Results: Polyhydramnios and prematurity were seen in children with SLC12A1 and KCNJ1 mutations. Patients with CLCNKB mutations had the lowest serum potassium and serum magnesium and the highest serum bicarbonate levels. Fractional excretion of chloride was >0.5% in all patients prior to supplementation. Nephrocalcinosis at presentation was present in the majority of patients with SLC12A1 and KCNJ1 mutations, while it was only present in one patient with CLCNKB and not in SLC12A3 or BSND mutations. Growth was impaired, but within the normal range (median height standard deviation score −1.2 at the last follow-up). Impaired estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2) at the last follow-up was seen predominantly with SLC12A1 [71 mL/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 46–74)] and KCNJ1 [62 mL/min/1.73 m2 (IQR 48–72)] mutations. Pathological albuminuria was detected in 31/45 children. / Conclusions: Patients with Bartter and Gitelman syndromes had a satisfactory prognosis during childhood. However, decreased eGFR and pathologic proteinuria was evident in a large number of these patients, highlighting the need to monitor glomerular as well as tubular function. Electrolyte abnormalities were most severe in CLCNKB mutations both at presentation and during follow-up. Fractional excretion of chloride prior to supplementation is a useful screening investigation in children with hypokalaemic alkalosis to establish renal salt wasting.

Type: Article
Title: Clinical and diagnostic features of Bartter and Gitelman syndromes
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/ckj/sfx118
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ckj/sfx118
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com.
Keywords: Bartter syndrome, chronic kidney disease, Gitelman syndrome, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis, renal tubular disease
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Renal Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1574551
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