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Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

de Borst, AW; de Gelder, B; (2015) Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective. Frontiers in Psychology , 6 , Article 576. 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00576. Green open access

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Abstract

Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

Type: Article
Title: Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00576
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00576
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2015 de Borst and de Gelder. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms
Keywords: uncanny valley, virtual characters, naturalistic stimuli, virtual reality, fMRI, emotion perception, action perception, social interaction
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1573621
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