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Is there a role for ischaemic conditioning in cardiac surgery?

Candilio, L; Hausenloy, D; (2017) Is there a role for ischaemic conditioning in cardiac surgery? [Review]. F1000Res , 6 , Article 563. 10.12688/f1000research.10963.1. Green open access

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Abstract

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is the revascularisation strategy of choice in patients with diabetes mellitus and complex CAD. Owing to a number of factors, including the ageing population, the increased complexity of CAD being treated, concomitant valve and aortic surgery, and multiple comorbidities, higher-risk patients are being operated on, the result of which is an increased risk of sustaining perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) and poorer clinical outcomes. As such, new treatment strategies are required to protect the heart against PMI and improve clinical outcomes following cardiac surgery. In this regard, the heart can be endogenously protected from PMI by subjecting the myocardium to one or more brief cycles of ischaemia and reperfusion, a strategy called "ischaemic conditioning". However, this requires an intervention applied directly to the heart, which may be challenging to apply in the clinical setting. In this regard, the strategy of remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) may be more attractive, as it allows the endogenous cardioprotective strategy to be applied away from the heart to the arm or leg by simply inflating and deflating a cuff on the upper arm or thigh to induce one or more brief cycles of ischaemia and reperfusion (termed "limb RIC"). Although a number of small clinical studies have demonstrated less PMI with limb RIC following cardiac surgery, three recently published large multicentre randomised clinical trials found no beneficial effects on short-term or long-term clinical outcomes, questioning the role of limb RIC in the setting of cardiac surgery. In this article, we review ischaemic conditioning as a therapeutic strategy for endogenous cardioprotection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery and discuss the potential reasons for the failure of limb RIC to improve clinical outcomes in this setting. Crucially, limb RIC still has the therapeutic potential to protect the heart in other clinical settings, such as acute myocardial infarction, and it may also protect other organs against acute ischaemia/reperfusion injury (such as the brain, kidney, and liver).

Type: Article
Title: Is there a role for ischaemic conditioning in cardiac surgery?
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.10963.1
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.10963.1
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright: © 2017 Candilio L and Hausenloy D. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Data associated with the article are available under the terms of the Creative Commons Zero "No rights reserved" data waiver (CC0 1.0 Public domain dedication).
Keywords: ischemic postconditioning, ischemic preconditioning, remote ischemic conditioning
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Pre-clinical and Fundamental Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1558542
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