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Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation

Anwar, SL; Wulaningsih, W; Lehmann, U; (2017) Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation. International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 18 (5) , Article 974. 10.3390/ijms18050974. Green open access

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Abstract

Transposable elements (TEs) comprise nearly half of the human genome and play an essential role in the maintenance of genomic stability, chromosomal architecture, and transcriptional regulation. TEs are repetitive sequences consisting of RNA transposons, DNA transposons, and endogenous retroviruses that can invade the human genome with a substantial contribution in human evolution and genomic diversity. TEs are therefore firmly regulated from early embryonic development and during the entire course of human life by epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation and histone modifications. The deregulation of TEs has been reported in some developmental diseases, as well as for different types of human cancers. To date, the role of TEs, the mechanisms underlying TE reactivation, and the interplay with DNA methylation in human cancers remain largely unexplained. We reviewed the loss of epigenetic regulation and subsequent genomic instability, chromosomal aberrations, transcriptional deregulation, oncogenic activation, and aberrations of non-coding RNAs as the potential mechanisms underlying TE deregulation in human cancers.

Type: Article
Title: Transposable Elements in Human Cancer: Causes and Consequences of Deregulation
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/ijms18050974
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18050974
Language: English
Additional information: © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Cancer, epigenetics, genomic instability, non-coding RNAs, transposable elements
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1556110
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