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Dexmedetomidine Combined with Therapeutic Hypothermia Is Associated with Cardiovascular Instability and Neurotoxicity in a Piglet Model of Perinatal Asphyxia

Ezzati, M; Kawano, G; Rocha-Ferreira, E; Alonso-Alconada, D; Hassell, JK; Broad, KD; Fierens, I; ... Robertson, NJ; + view all (2017) Dexmedetomidine Combined with Therapeutic Hypothermia Is Associated with Cardiovascular Instability and Neurotoxicity in a Piglet Model of Perinatal Asphyxia. Developmental Neuroscience 10.1159/000458438. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

The selective α2-adrenoreceptor agonist dexmedetomidine has shown neuroprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and sympatholytic properties that may be beneficial in neonatal encephalopathy (NE). As therapeutic hypothermia is only partially effective, adjunct therapies are needed to optimize outcomes. The aim was to assess whether hypothermia + dexmedetomidine treatment augments neuroprotection compared to routine treatment (hypothermia + fentanyl sedation) in a piglet model of NE using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) biomarkers, which predict outcomes in babies with NE, and immunohistochemistry. After hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), 20 large White male piglets were randomized to: (i) hypothermia + fentanyl with cooling to 33.5°C from 2 to 26 h, or (ii) hypothermia + dexmedetomidine (a loading dose of 2 μg/kg at 10 min followed by 0.028 μg/kg/h for 48 h). Whole-brain phosphorus-31 and regional proton MRS biomarkers were assessed at baseline, 24, and 48 h after HI. At 48 h, cell death was evaluated over 7 brain regions by means of transferase-mediated d-UTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Dexmedetomidine plasma levels were mainly within the target sedative range of 1 μg/L. In the hypothermia + dexmedetomidine group, there were 6 cardiac arrests (3 fatal) versus 2 (non-fatal) in the hypothermia + fentanyl group. The hypothermia + dexmedetomidine group required more saline (p = 0.005) to maintain blood pressure. Thalamic and white-matter lactate/N-acetylaspartate did not differ between groups (p = 0.66 and p = 0.21, respectively); the whole-brain nucleotide triphosphate/exchangeable phosphate pool was similar (p = 0.73) over 48 h. Cell death (TUNEL-positive cells/mm2) was higher in the hypothermia + dexmedetomidine group than in the hypothermia + fentanyl group (mean 5.1 vs. 2.3, difference 2.8 [95% CI 0.6-4.9], p = 0.036). Hypothermia + dexmedetomidine treatment was associated with adverse cardiovascular events, even within the recommended clinical sedative plasma level; these may have been exacerbated by an interaction with either isoflurane or low body temperature. Hypothermia + dexmedetomidine treatment was neurotoxic following HI in our piglet NE model, suggesting that caution is vital if dexmedetomidine is combined with cooling following NE.

Type: Article
Title: Dexmedetomidine Combined with Therapeutic Hypothermia Is Associated with Cardiovascular Instability and Neurotoxicity in a Piglet Model of Perinatal Asphyxia
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1159/000458438
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1159/000458438
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Neonatal encephalopathy · Hypothermia · Dexmedetomidine · Magnetic resonance spectroscopy
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Ophthalmology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Brain Repair and Rehabilitation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Experimental and Translational Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Maternal and Fetal Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Neonatology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1551591
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