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Multivariate analysis of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction data for the detection of illicit drugs in border control

Drakos, I; Kenny, P; Fearn, T; Speller, R; (2017) Multivariate analysis of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction data for the detection of illicit drugs in border control. Crime Science , 6 , Article 1. 10.1186/s40163-016-0062-9. Green open access

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Abstract

A system using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction has been tested to detect the presence of illicit drugs concealed within parcels typical of those which are imported into the UK via postal and courier services. The system was used to record diffraction data from calibration samples of diamorphine (heroin) and common cutting agents and a partial least squares regression model was established between diamorphine concentration and diffraction spectra. Parcels containing various crystalline and amorphous materials, including diamorphine, were then scanned to obtain multiple localised diffraction spectra and to form a hyperspectral image. The calibration model was used for the prediction of diamorphine concentration throughout the volume of parcels and enabled the presence and location of diamorphine to be determined from the visual inspection of concentration maps. This research demonstrates for the first time the potential of an EDXRD system to generate continuous hyperspectral images of real parcels from volume scanning in security applications and introduces the opportunity to explore hyperspectral image analysis in chemical and material identification. However, more work must be done to make the system ready for implementation in border control operations by bringing down the procedure time to operational requirements and by proving the system's portability.

Type: Article
Title: Multivariate analysis of energy dispersive X-ray diffraction data for the detection of illicit drugs in border control
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s40163-016-0062-9
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1186/s40163-016-0062-9
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: X-ray diffraction; Multivariate analysis; Border control Illicit drugs; Drug detection
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Statistical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1550196
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