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Diffuse White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System Among Patients With Neurological Symptoms

Kugathasan, R; Collier, DA; Haddow, LJ; El Bouzidi, K; Edwards, SG; Cartledge, JD; Miller, RF; (2017) Diffuse White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System Among Patients With Neurological Symptoms. CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES , 64 (8) pp. 1059-1065. 10.1093/cid/cix035. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can replicate independently in extravascular compartments such as the central nervous system, resulting in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discordance (viral load [VL] in CSF 0.5 log10 copies HIV-1 RNA greater than plasma VL) or escape (detection of HIV VL >50 copies/mL in CSF in patients with suppressed plasma VL <50 copies/mL). Both discordance and escape may be associated with neurological symptoms. We explored risk factors for CSF discordance and escape in patients presenting with diverse neurological problems. Methods: HIV-infected adult patients undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture (LP) at a single center between 2011 and 2015 were included in the analysis. Clinical and neuroimaging variables associated with CSF discordance/escape were identified using multivariate logistic regression. Results: One hundred forty-six patients with a median age of 45.3 (interquartile range [IQR], 39.6–51.5) years underwent 163 LPs. Median CD4 count was 430 (IQR, 190–620) cells/µL. Twenty-four (14.7%) LPs in 22 patients showed CSF discordance, of which 10 (6.1%) LPs in 9 patients represented CSF escape. In multivariate analysis, both CSF discordance and escape were associated with diffuse white matter signal abnormalities (DWMSAs) on cranial magnetic resonance imaging (adjusted odds ratio, 10.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.3–45.0], P = .007 and 56.9 [95% CI, 4.0–882.8], P = .01, respectively). All 7 patients with CSF escape (10 LPs) had been diagnosed with HIV >7 years prior to LP, and 6 of 6 patients with resistance data had documented evidence of drug-resistant virus in plasma. Conclusions: Among patients presenting with diverse neurological problems, CSF discordance or escape was observed in 15%, with treatment-experienced patients dominating the escape group. DWMSAs in HIV-infected individuals presenting with neurological problems should raise suspicion of possible CSF discordance/escape.

Type: Article
Title: Diffuse White Matter Signal Abnormalities on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Associated With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System Among Patients With Neurological Symptoms
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix035
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cix035
Additional information: © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Immunology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, HIV, viral escape, neurocognitive impairment, CSF, reservoir, PROTEASE INHIBITOR MONOTHERAPY, CNS PENETRATION-EFFECTIVENESS, HIV-INFECTED SUBJECTS, CEREBROSPINAL-FLUID, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, DARUNAVIR/RITONAVIR MONOTHERAPY, RNA, REPLICATION, DISCORDANCE
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1549524
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