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High mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment in Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study

Adamu, AL; Gadanya, MA; Abubakar, IS; Jibo, AM; Bello, MM; Gajida, AU; Babashani, MM; (2017) High mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment in Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study. BMC Infectious Diseases , 17 , Article 170. 10.1186/s12879-017-2249-4. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of death in much of sub-Saharan Africa despite available effective treatment. Prompt initiation of TB treatment and access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains vital to the success of TB control. We assessed time to mortality after treatment onset using data from a large treatment centre in Nigeria. METHODS: We analysed a retrospective cohort of TB patients that commenced treatment between January 2010 and December 2014 in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. We estimated mortality rates per person-months at risk (pm). Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: Among 1,424 patients with a median age of 36.6â years, 237 patients (16.6%) died after commencing TB treatment giving a mortality rate of 3.68 per 100â pm of treatment in this cohort. Most deaths occurred soon after treatment onset with a mortality rate of 37.6 per 100â pm in the 1st week of treatment. Risk factors for death were being HIV-positive but not on anti-retroviral treatment (ART) (aHR 1.39(1 · 04-1 · 85)), residence outside the city (aHR 3 · 18(2.28-4.45)), previous TB treatment (aHR 3.48(2.54-4.77)), no microbiological confirmation (aHR 4.96(2.69-9.17)), having both pulmonary and extra-pulmonary TB (aHR 1.45(1.03-2.02), and referral from a non-programme linked clinic/centre (aHR 3.02(2.01-4.53)). CONCLUSIONS: We attribute early deaths in this relatively young cohort to delay in diagnosis and treatment of TB, inadequate treatment of drug-resistant TB, and poor ART access. Considerable expansion and improvement in quality of diagnosis and treatment services for TB and HIV are needed to achieve the sustainable development goal of reducing TB deaths by 95% by 2035.

Type: Article
Title: High mortality among tuberculosis patients on treatment in Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2249-4
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-017-2249-4
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s). 2017 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Keywords: Tuberculosis; Mortality; Risk factors; Adults; Nigeria; Retrospective cohort
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1544902
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