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Blood-brain barrier integrity, intrathecal immunoactivation, and neuronal injury in HIV

Anesten, B; Yilmaz, A; Hagberg, L; Zetterberg, H; Nilsson, S; Brew, BJ; Fuchs, D; ... Gisslén, M; + view all (2016) Blood-brain barrier integrity, intrathecal immunoactivation, and neuronal injury in HIV. Neurology: Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation , 3 (6) , Article e300. 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000300. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Although blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment has been reported in HIV-infected individuals, characterization of this impairment has not been clearly defined. METHODS: BBB integrity was measured by CSF/plasma albumin ratio in this cross-sectional study of 631 HIV-infected individuals and 71 controls. We also analyzed CSF and blood HIV RNA and neopterin, CSF leukocyte count, and neurofilament light chain protein (NFL) concentrations. The HIV-infected participants included untreated neuroasymptomatic patients, patients with untreated HIV-associated dementia (HAD), and participants on suppressive antiretroviral treatment (ART). RESULTS: The albumin ratio was significantly increased in patients with HAD compared to all other groups. There were no significant differences between untreated neuroasymptomatic participants, treated participants, and controls. BBB integrity, however, correlated significantly with CSF leukocyte count, CSF HIV RNA, serum and CSF neopterin, and age in untreated neuroasymptomatic participants. In a multiple linear regression analysis, age, CSF neopterin, and CSF leukocyte count stood out as independent predictors of albumin ratio. A significant correlation was found between albumin ratio and CSF NFL in untreated neuroasymptomatic patients and in participants on ART. Albumin ratio, age, and CD4 cell count were confirmed as independent predictors of CSF NFL in multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: BBB disruption was mainly found in patients with HAD, where BBB damage correlated with CNS immunoactivation. Albumin ratios also correlated with CSF inflammatory markers and NFL in untreated neuroasymptomatic participants. These findings give support to the association among BBB deterioration, intrathecal immunoactivation, and neuronal injury in untreated neuroasymptomatic HIV-infected individuals.

Type: Article
Title: Blood-brain barrier integrity, intrathecal immunoactivation, and neuronal injury in HIV
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000300
Publisher version: http:/​/​dx.​doi.​org/​10.​1212/​NXI.​000000000000...
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 American Academy of Neurology. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License 4.0 (CC BY-NC-ND), which permits downloading and sharing the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1537444
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