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Influence of PPCPs on the performance of intermittently operated slow sand filters for household water purification

Pompei, CM; Ciric, L; Canales, M; Karu, K; Vieira, EM; Campos, LC; (2017) Influence of PPCPs on the performance of intermittently operated slow sand filters for household water purification. Science of the Total Environment , 581 pp. 174-185. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.091. Green open access

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Abstract

Removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) from drinking water is usually enhanced by advanced oxidation which is not affordable in low income countries. Slow sand filtration has been found to be capable of removing anti-inflammatory compounds, and its low maintenance costs and easy operation make it an attractive technology for treating drinking water in many parts of the world. In addition, slow sand filters can be used at both large and household scales. The biofilm (i.e. schmutzdecke) developed on the top of the sand and within the upper layers of the sand is acknowledged to be responsible for the water purification. However, it is possible that the PPCPs may affect the schmutzdecke development and microbial community within the filters, and consequently the performance of the filter. This study investigated two household slow sand filters (for water purification) operated intermittently with and without contamination by six PPCPs. Eleven parameters were monitored in the affluent and effluent water, including bacterial species present and schmutzdecke biomass development. Results demonstrated that the household slow sand filter performance was not affected by the 2μgL(-1) of PPCPs in the water. There was no significant difference between filters for total coliforms and E. coli removal, but there was considerable difference between sampling times. Biomass considerably increased with the number of filtrations in both filters and there was no significant difference between filter biomass. However, it was found that more bacterial species were present in the period with no contamination than during the contamination period. Bacillus anthracis and Exiguobacterium sp. showed to be resistant to the effects of the PPCPs. These suggest there are effects of PPCPs on bacterial species within the filter. However, the effect of the PPCPs on biomass was not conclusive in this study and needs to be further investigated.

Type: Article
Title: Influence of PPCPs on the performance of intermittently operated slow sand filters for household water purification
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.091
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.12.091
Language: English
Additional information: This manuscript version is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licences are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Access may be initially restricted by the publisher.
Keywords: Bacteria sequencing, Biofilm, Biomass, Pharmaceuticals and personal care compounds, Slow sand filters
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Civil, Environ and Geomatic Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1535480
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