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Common Mental Disorders

Stansfeld, S; Clark, C; Bebbington, PE; King, M; Jenkins, R; Hinchliffe, S; (2016) Common Mental Disorders. In: McManus, S and Bebbington, PE and Jenkins, R and Brugha, T, (eds.) Mental health and wellbeing in England: Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2014. (pp. 37-68). NHS Digital: Leeds, UK. Green open access

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Abstract

Common mental disorders (CMDs) comprise different types of depression and anxiety. They cause marked emotional distress and interfere with daily function,but do not usually affect insight or cognition. Although usually less disabling than major psychiatric disorders, their higher prevalence means the cumulative cost of CMDs to society is great. The revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R) has been used on each Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (APMS) in the series to assess six types of CMD: depression, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, phobias, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and CMD not otherwise specified (CMD-NOS). Many people meet the criteria for more than one CMD. The CIS-R is also used to produce a score that reflects overall severity of CMD symptoms. • Since 2000, there has been a slight but steady increase in the proportion of women with CMD symptoms (as indicated by a CIS-R score of 12 or more), but overall stability at this level among men. The increase in prevalence was evident mostly at the more severe end of the scale (CIS-R score 18 or more). • Since the last survey (2007), increases in CMD have also been evident among late midlife men and women (aged 55 to 64), and approached significance in young women (aged 16 to 24). • The gap in rates of CMD symptoms between young men and women appears to have grown. In 1993, 16 to 24 year old women (19.2%) were twice as likely as 16 to 24 year old men (8.4%) to have symptoms of CMD (CIS-R score 12 or more). In 2014, CMD symptoms were about three times more common in women of that age (26.0%) than men (9.1%). • CMDs were more prevalent in certain groups of the population. These included Black women, adults under the age of 60 who lived alone, women who lived in large households, adults not in employment, those in receipt of benefits and those who smoked cigarettes. These associations are in keeping with increased social disadvantage and poverty being associated with higher risk of CMD. Most people identified by the CIS-R with a CMD also perceived themselves to have a CMD. This was not the case for most of the other disorders assessed in the APMS. • While most of these people had been diagnosed with a mental disorder by a professional, the disorders they reported having been diagnosed with tended to be ‘depression’ or ‘panic attacks’. However, the disorder most commonly identified by the CIS-R was GAD. This difference may reflect the language and terminology used by people when discussing their mental health with a professional.

Type: Book chapter
Title: Common Mental Disorders
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Publisher version: http://content.digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB21748/a...
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record. You may re-use this publication under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > IoN RLW Inst of Neurological Sci
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1532018
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