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Incidence and Risk Estimate of Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis in Hong Kong Chinese. A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Sing, CW; Wong, ICK; Cheung, BMY; Chan, JCY; Chu, JKP; Cheung, CL; (2017) Incidence and Risk Estimate of Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis in Hong Kong Chinese. A Population-Based Case-Control Study. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety , 26 (3) pp. 248-255. 10.1002/pds.4156. Green open access

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Abstract

Purpose Drug-induced agranulocytosis is a rare but life-threatening adverse drug reaction. Its epidemiology in Chinese is largely unknown. This study aimed to estimate the incidence, mortality, and risk of the drugs associated with agranulocytosis in Hong Kong Chinese. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System, a database managed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Patients with drug-induced agranulocytosis from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2013 were identified. World Health Organization causality assessment was used to evaluate the possible drug aetiology of each case. Odd ratios (ORs) of the drug exposure were calculated using exact conditional logistic regression. Results 155 cases of drug-induced agranulocytosis were identified. Mean age was 51.4 years and 95 cases were female. Incidence rate was estimated to be 2.2 cases per million person-years and the all-cause mortality of patients with drug-induced agranulocytosis was 3.9%. Among the cases, the most common associated drug groups were antithyroid drugs (41.9%), antimicrobials (20%), anticonvulsants (10.3%), and antipsychotics (6.5%). Carbimazole had the highest risk of agranulocytosis (adjusted OR 416.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 51.5 – 3372.9) with an incidence of 9.2 (95% CI 6.9 - 12.1) per 10,000 users and 3.6 (95% CI 2.7 - 4.8) per 10,000 user-years. Other drugs with significant risk included cephalosporins, clozapine, penicillins, phenytoin, and propyl thiouracil. Conclusions The incidence and mortality in Hong Kong Chinese were relatively low compared to Caucasians. Antithyroid drugs were the most common Its epidemiology in Chinese is largely unknown. This study aimed to estimate the incidence, mortality, and risk of the drugs associated with agranulocytosis in Hong Kong Chinese. Methods A population-based case-control study was conducted using the Clinical Data Analysis and Reporting System, a database managed by the Hong Kong Hospital Authority. Patients with drug-induced agranulocytosis from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2013 were identified. World Health Organization causality assessment was used to evaluate the possible drug aetiology of each case. Odd ratios (ORs) of the drug exposure were calculated using exact conditional logistic regression. Results 155 cases of drug-induced agranulocytosis were identified. Mean age was 51.4 years and 95 cases were female. Incidence rate was estimated to be 2.2 cases per million person-years and the all-cause mortality of patients with drug-induced agranulocytosis was 3.9%. Among the cases, the most common associated drug groups were antithyroid drugs (41.9%), antimicrobials (20%), anticonvulsants (10.3%), and antipsychotics (6.5%). Carbimazole had the highest risk of agranulocytosis (adjusted OR 416.7, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 51.5 – 3372.9) with an incidence of 9.2 (95% CI 6.9 - 12.1) per 10,000 users and 3.6 (95% CI 2.7 - 4.8) per 10,000 user-years. Other drugs with significant risk included cephalosporins, clozapine, penicillins, phenytoin, and propyl thiouracil. Conclusions The incidence and mortality in Hong Kong Chinese were relatively low compared to Caucasians. Antithyroid drugs were the most common implicated drug class and carbimazole had the highest risk of agranulocytosis.

Type: Article
Title: Incidence and Risk Estimate of Drug-Induced Agranulocytosis in Hong Kong Chinese. A Population-Based Case-Control Study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/pds.4156
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.4156
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Agranulocytosis, adverse drug reaction, Chinese
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Practice and Policy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1530974
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