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Intelligent GNSS Positioning using 3D Mapping and Context Detection for Better Accuracy in Dense Urban Environments

Groves, PD; Adjrad, M; Gao, H; Ellul, CD; (2016) Intelligent GNSS Positioning using 3D Mapping and Context Detection for Better Accuracy in Dense Urban Environments. In: (Proceedings) INC 16: International Navigation Conference, 8-10 November 2016, Glasgow, UK. Royal Institute of Navigation Green open access

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Abstract

Conventional GNSS positioning in dense urban areas can exhibit errors of tens of meters due to blockage and reflection of signals by the surrounding buildings. Here, we present a full implementation of the intelligent urban positioning (IUP) 3D-mapping-aided (3DMA) GNSS concept. This combines conventional ranging-based GNSS positioning enhanced by 3D mapping with the GNSS shadow-matching technique. Shadow matching determines position by comparing the measured signal availability with that predicted over a grid of candidate positions using 3D mapping. Thus, IUP uses both pseudo-range and signal-to-noise measurements to determine position. All algorithms incorporate terrain-height aiding and use measurements from a single epoch in time. Two different 3DMA ranging algorithms are presented, one based on least-squares estimation and the other based on computing the likelihoods of a grid of candidate position hypotheses. The likelihood-based ranging algorithm uses the same candidate position hypotheses as shadow matching and makes different assumptions about which signals are direct line-of-sight (LOS) and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) at each candidate position. Two different methods for integrating likelihood-based 3DMA ranging with shadow matching are also compared. In the position-domain approach, separate ranging and shadow-matching position solutions are computed, then averaged using direction-dependent weighting. In the hypothesis-domain approach, the candidate position scores from the ranging and shadow matching algorithms are combined prior to extracting a joint position solution. Test data was recorded using a u-blox EVK M8T consumer-grade GNSS receiver and a HTC Nexus 9 tablet at 28 locations across two districts of London. The City of London is a traditional dense urban environment, while Canary Wharf is a modern environment. The Nexus 9 tablet data was recorded using the Android Nougat GNSS receiver interface and is representative of future smartphones. Best results were obtained using the likelihood-based 3DMA ranging algorithm and hypothesis-based integration with shadow matching. With the u-blox receiver, the single-epoch RMS horizontal (i.e., 2D) error across all sites was 4.0 m, compared to 28.2 m for conventional positioning, a factor of 7.1 improvement. Using the Nexus tablet, the intelligent urban positioning RMS error was 7.0 m, compared to 32.7 m for conventional GNSS positioning, a factor of 4.7 improvement. An analysis of processing and data requirements shows that intelligent urban positioning is practical to implement in real-time on a mobile device or a server. Navigation and positioning is inherently dependent on the context, which comprises both the operating environment and the behaviour of the host vehicle or user. No single technique is capable of providing reliable and accurate positioning in all contexts. In order to operate reliably across different contexts, a multi-sensor navigation system is required to detect its operating context and reconfigure the techniques accordingly. Specifically, 3DMA GNSS should be selected when the user is in a dense urban environment, not indoors or in an open environment. Algorithms for detecting indoor and outdoor context using GNSS measurements and a hidden Markov model are described and demonstrated.

Type: Proceedings paper
Title: Intelligent GNSS Positioning using 3D Mapping and Context Detection for Better Accuracy in Dense Urban Environments
Event: INC 16: International Navigation Conference, 8-10 November 2016, Glasgow, UK
Location: Strathclyde, UK
Dates: 08 November 2016 - 10 November 2016
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Publisher version: http://www.internationalnavigationconference.org.u...
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016 UCL Authors.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Civil, Environ and Geomatic Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1524033
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