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Conducting Al and Ga-doped zinc oxides; rapid optimisation and scale-up

Howard, DP; Marchand, P; Johnson, ID; Carmalt, CJ; Parkin, IP; Darr, JA; (2016) Conducting Al and Ga-doped zinc oxides; rapid optimisation and scale-up. Journal of Materials Chemistry A , 4 (33) pp. 12774-12780. 10.1039/c6ta03364d. Green open access

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Abstract

A high-throughput synthesis, screening and subsequent scale-up approach was utilised for the optimisation of conductive aluminium and gallium-doped zinc oxide (AZO and GZO, respectively) nanoparticles. AZO and GZO nanoparticles with up to 6 at% dopant (with respect to Zn) were directly synthesised using a laboratory scale continuous hydrothermal process at a rate of 60 g per hour. The resistivities were determined by Hall effect measurements on pressed, heat-treated discs. Both Al- and Ga-doping yielded resistivities of the order of 1 × 10−2 Ω cm for most samples; the lowest resistivity of AZO was 7.0 × 10−3 Ω cm (at 2.5 at% Al doping), and the lowest resistivity of GZO was 9.1 × 10−3 Ω cm (at 3.5 at% Ga doping), which are considered exceptionally conductive for pressed nanopowders. Synthesis of the optimised lab-scale compositions was scaled-up using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal process at a production rate of 8 kg per day (by dry mass); results obtained from these nanopowders generally retained resistivity trends observed for the lab-scale analogues.

Type: Article
Title: Conducting Al and Ga-doped zinc oxides; rapid optimisation and scale-up
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1039/c6ta03364d
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6ta03364d
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported Licence.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Physical Sciences, Technology, Chemistry, Physical, Energy & Fuels, Materials Science, Multidisciplinary, Chemistry, Materials Science, Thin-Films, Transparent Conductors, Hydrothermal Synthesis, Nanocrystals, Zno, Nanomaterials, Spectroscopy, Electrodes, Deposition, Layers
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1521247
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