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Quantification of the Fraction of Particulate Matter Derived from a Range of C-13-Labeled Fuels Blended into Heptane, Studied in a Diesel Engine and Tube Reactor

Eveleigh, A; Ladommatos, N; Hallier, P; Jourdan, A-L; (2016) Quantification of the Fraction of Particulate Matter Derived from a Range of C-13-Labeled Fuels Blended into Heptane, Studied in a Diesel Engine and Tube Reactor. Energy & Fuels , 30 (9) pp. 7678-7690. 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00322. Green open access

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of an experimental study that was carried out to determine the conversion rates to particulate matter (PM) of several liquid fuel hydrocarbon molecules and specific carbon atoms within those molecules. The fuels investigated (ethanol, n-propanol, i-propanol, acetone, and toluene) were blended in binary mixtures with n-heptane to a level of 10 mol percent. The contribution of the additive molecules to PM was quantified using a carbon-13 (13C) labeling experiment, in which the fuel of interest was enriched with 13C to serve as an atomic tracer. Measurement of the 13C/12C in the fuel and in the resulting PM was carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The fuel binary mixtures were tested under pyrolysis conditions in a tube reactor and also combusted in a direct injection compression ignition engine. In the tube reactor, samples were generated under oxygen-free pyrolysis conditions and at a temperature of 1300 °C, while the engine experiments were carried out at an intermediate load. Both in the tube reactor and in the engine it was found that, dependent on the fuel molecular structure, there were significant differences in the overall conversion rates to PM of the fuel molecules and of the “submolecular” carbon atoms. A separate experiment was also carried out in the compression ignition engine, with n-heptane as fuel, in order to determine the contribution of the engine lubrication oil to exhaust PM; the results showed that a significant portion (∼60%) of the total particulate was derived from the lubrication oil.

Type: Article
Title: Quantification of the Fraction of Particulate Matter Derived from a Range of C-13-Labeled Fuels Blended into Heptane, Studied in a Diesel Engine and Tube Reactor
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00322
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b00322
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 American Chemical Society. This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Technology, Energy & Fuels, Engineering, Chemical, Engineering, HYDROCARBON GROWTH-PROCESSES, SOOT FORMATION, MOLECULAR-STRUCTURE, DIFFUSION FLAMES, OXYGENATED HYDROCARBONS, LUBRICATING OIL, SHOCK-TUBE, N-HEPTANE, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Earth Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1516003
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