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The effect of iron catalyzed graphitization on the textural properties of carbonized cellulose: Magnetically separable graphitic carbon bodies for catalysis and remediation

Hoekstra, J; Beale, AM; Soulimani, F; Versluijs-Helder, M; van de Kleut, D; Koelewijn, JM; Geus, JW; (2016) The effect of iron catalyzed graphitization on the textural properties of carbonized cellulose: Magnetically separable graphitic carbon bodies for catalysis and remediation. Carbon , 107 pp. 248-260. 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.065. Green open access

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Abstract

Whereas pyrolysis of pristine microcrystalline cellulose spheres yields nonporous amorphous carbon bodies, pyrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose spheres loaded with iron salts leads to the formation of magnetically separable mesoporous graphitic carbon bodies. The microcrystalline cellulose spheres loaded with either iron(III) nitrate, ammonium iron(III) citrate or iron(III) chloride were pyrolyzed up to 800 °C. Temperature dependent X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the iron salts are transformed into iron oxide nanoparticles; their size and distribution are influenced by the anion of the iron salt. The iron oxide nanoparticles are subsequently carbothermally reduced by the amorphous carbon that is obtained from the pyrolysis of the microcrystalline cellulose. Next, the iron nanoparticles catalyze the conversion of the amorphous carbon to graphitic carbon nanostructures as shown with XRD, electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The extent of graphitization depends on the iron nanoparticle size. Nitrogen physisorption measurements show that this graphitization process introduces mesopores into the carbon bodies. The benefits of the properties of the resulting carbon bodies (ferromagnetic character, graphitic content, mesoporosity) are discussed in connection with applications in liquid-phase catalysis and remediation.

Type: Article
Title: The effect of iron catalyzed graphitization on the textural properties of carbonized cellulose: Magnetically separable graphitic carbon bodies for catalysis and remediation
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.065
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.065
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. This manuscript version is made available under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licenses are available at https://creativecommons.org/licenses/. Access may be initially restricted by the publisher.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Physical Sciences, Technology, Chemistry, Physical, Materials Science, Multidisciplinary, Chemistry, Materials Science, RAMAN-SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION, ACTIVATED CARBON, HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS, THERMAL-DECOMPOSITION, CHEMICAL ACTIVATION, HYDROGEN REDUCTION, MOLECULAR-WEIGHT, PORE STRUCTURE, NANOPARTICLES, ADSORPTION
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1514891
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