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Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study

Verhoef, TI; Daley, R; Vallejo-Torres, L; Chitty, LS; Morris, S; (2016) Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study. Midwifery , 40 pp. 148-152. 10.1016/j.midw.2016.06.013. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. DESIGN: questionnaire-based costing study. SETTING: eight maternity clinics across the UK. PARTICIPANTS: pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. MEASUREMENTS: using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). FINDINGS: mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. KEY CONCLUSIONS: there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered.

Type: Article
Title: Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.midw.2016.06.013
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.midw.2016.06.013
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016. This manuscript version is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licences are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0. Access may be initially restricted by the publisher.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Nursing, Patient costs, Down's syndrome screening, Non-invasive prenatal testing, Cell free DNA, Health economics, NIPT
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Applied Health Research
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1508895
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