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The effects of caregiver and household HIV on child development: a community-based longitudinal study of young children

Sherr, L; Skeen, S; Hensels, IS; Tomlinson, M; Macedo, A; (2016) The effects of caregiver and household HIV on child development: a community-based longitudinal study of young children. Child: Care, Health and Development , 42 (6) pp. 890-899. 10.1111/cch.12387. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Many studies that document child outcomes in the context of parental HIV - which has been established as a risk factor for child development - focus on older children/adolescents. Studies also concentrate on the status of the primary caregiver, not other household members who might be infected. DESIGN: This study examined the effects of caregiver and household HIV on child development (4-13 years) in South Africa and Malawi (2011-2014). METHODS: Data were gathered from 989 children and their primary caregivers at baseline and repeated at 12-15 months follow-up (86.5% follow-up rate). Only caregivers of a single child and caregiver/child dyads without missing data were included, providing a sample of 808 dyads for analysis. Children were divided into three groups according to caregiver-reported HIV burden: having an HIV-positive primary caregiver (19.8%), having HIV in the household (14.2%) or no HIV (66%). RESULTS: The HIV burden was positively associated with an array of negative child outcomes, often mediated by caregiver depression levels. Family HIV burden at baseline affected child behavioural problems at follow-up indirectly through carer depression (B = 0.02; CI = 0.003, 0.06). Internalizing (B = 0.02; CI = 0.002, 0.05) and externalizing problems at follow-up (B = 0.01; CI = 0.0002, 0.03) were also indirectly affected by family HIV burden through caregiver depression. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that family HIV can affect child development, emphasizing the important role of depression in the pathway to such an effect. Community-based interventions directed at alleviating parental depression in the presence of HIV may help to interrupt the cycle of family HIV and adverse child outcomes.

Type: Article
Title: The effects of caregiver and household HIV on child development: a community-based longitudinal study of young children
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/cch.12387
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cch.12387
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 The Authors. Child: Care, Health and Development Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Keywords: HIV, caregivers, child development, depression, violence
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1508873
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