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The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond

James, EL; Lau-Zhu, A; Clark, IA; Visser, RM; Hagenaars, MA; Holmes, EA; (2016) The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond. Clinical Psychology Review , 47 pp. 106-142. 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.010. Green open access

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Abstract

A better understanding of psychological trauma is fundamental to clinical psychology. Following traumatic event(s), a clinically significant number of people develop symptoms, including those of Acute Stress Disorder and/or Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. The trauma film paradigm offers an experimental psychopathology model to study both exposure and reactions to psychological trauma, including the hallmark symptom of intrusive memories. We reviewed 74 articles that have used this paradigm since the earliest review (Holmes & Bourne, 2008) until July 2014. Highlighting the different stages of trauma processing, i.e. pre-, peri- and post-trauma, the studies are divided according to manipulations before, during and after film viewing, for experimental as well as correlational designs. While the majority of studies focussed on the frequency of intrusive memories, other reactions to trauma were also modelled. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of trauma, consider ethical issues, and suggest future directions. By understanding the basic mechanisms underlying trauma symptom development, we can begin to translate findings from the laboratory to the clinic, test innovative science-driven interventions, and in the future reduce the debilitating effects of psychopathology following stressful and/or traumatic events.

Type: Article
Title: The trauma film paradigm as an experimental psychopathology model of psychological trauma: intrusive memories and beyond
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.010
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2016.04.010
Language: English
Additional information: © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open Access: made available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Keywords: Social Sciences, Psychology, Clinical, Psychology, Trauma film, Intrusive memory, Involuntary memory, Flashbacks, Mental imagery, Trauma, Post traumatic stress disorder, Acute stress disorder, Stressful film, Traumatic film, Experimental psychopathology, Experimental medicine model, POSTTRAUMATIC-STRESS-DISORDER, RECONSOLIDATION-UPDATE MECHANISMS, WORKING-MEMORY, AUTOBIOGRAPHICAL MEMORIES, MENTAL-IMAGERY, PTSD SYMPTOMS, ATTENTIONAL BIAS, EYE-MOVEMENTS, ANALOG TRAUMA, COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Imaging Neuroscience
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1508557
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