UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

Adverse renal, endocrine, hepatic, and metabolic events during maintenance mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder: a population-based cohort study

Hayes, JF; Marston, L; Walters, K; Geddes, JR; King, M; Osborn, DP; (2016) Adverse renal, endocrine, hepatic, and metabolic events during maintenance mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder: a population-based cohort study. PLoS Medicine , 13 (8) , Article e1002058. 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002058. Green open access

[thumbnail of journal.pone.0155773.pdf]
Preview
Text
journal.pone.0155773.pdf - Published Version

Download (780kB) | Preview

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is limited, poorly characterized information about adverse events occurring during maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. We aimed to determine adverse event rates during treatment with lithium, valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a propensity score adjusted cohort study using nationally representative United Kingdom electronic health records from January 1, 1995, until December 31, 2013. We included patients who had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and were prescribed lithium (n = 2148), valproate (n = 1670), olanzapine (n = 1477), or quetiapine (n = 1376) as maintenance mood stabilizer treatment. Adverse outcomes were chronic kidney disease, thyroid disease, hypercalcemia, weight gain, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and hepatotoxicity. The propensity score included important demographic, physical health, and mental health predictors of drug treatment allocation. The median duration of drug treatment was 1.48 y (interquartile range 0.64-3.43). Compared to patients prescribed lithium, those taking valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine had reduced rates of chronic kidney disease stage 3 or more severe, following adjustment for propensity score, age, and calendar year, and accounting for clustering by primary care practice (valproate hazard ratio [HR] 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.45-0.69; p < 0.001, olanzapine HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.45-0.71; p < 0.001, quetiapine HR 0.62; 95% CI 0.47-0.80; p < 0.001). Hypothyroidism was reduced in those taking valproate (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.89; p = 0.012) and olanzapine (HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = 0.003), compared to those taking lithium. Rates of new onset hyperthyroidism (valproate HR 0.24; 95% CI 0.09-0.61; p = 0.003, olanzapine HR 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.73; p = 0.007) and hypercalcemia (valproate HR 0.25; 95% CI 0.10-0.60; p = 0.002, olanzapine HR 0.32; 95% CI 0.14-0.76; p = 0.008, quetiapine HR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07-0.73; p = 0.013) were also reduced relative to lithium. However, rates of greater than 15% weight gain on valproate, olanzapine, and quetiapine were higher (valproate HR 1.62; 95% CI 1.31-2.01; p < 0.001, olanzapine HR 1.84; 95% CI 1.47-2.30; p < 0.001, quetiapine HR 1.67; 95% CI 1.24-2.20; p < 0.001) than in individuals prescribed lithium, as were rates of hypertension in the olanzapine treated group (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.87; p = 0.017). We found no significant difference in rates of chronic kidney disease stage 4 or more severe, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, or hepatotoxicity. Despite estimates being robust following sensitivity analyses, limitations include the potential for residual confounding and ascertainment bias and an inability to examine dosage effects. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium use is associated with more renal and endocrine adverse events but less weight gain than commonly used alternative mood stabilizers. Risks need to be offset with the effectiveness and anti-suicidal benefits of lithium and the potential metabolic side effects of alternative treatment options.

Type: Article
Title: Adverse renal, endocrine, hepatic, and metabolic events during maintenance mood stabilizer treatment for bipolar disorder: a population-based cohort study
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002058
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002058
Additional information: © 2016 Hayes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Primary Care and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1508049
Downloads since deposit
136Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item