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Burden of respiratory tract infections at post mortem in Zambian children

Bates, M; Shibemba, A; Mudenda, V; Chimoga, C; Tembo, J; Kabwe, M; Chilufya, M; ... Zumla, A; + view all (2016) Burden of respiratory tract infections at post mortem in Zambian children. BMC Medicine , 14 , Article 99. 10.1186/s12916-016-0645-z. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Autopsy studies are the gold standard for determining cause-of-death and can inform on improved diagnostic strategies and algorithms to improve patient care. We conducted a cross-sectional observational autopsy study to describe the burden of respiratory tract infections in inpatient children who died at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Gross pathology was recorded and lung tissue was analysed by histopathology and molecular diagnostics. Recruitment bias was estimated by comparing recruited and non-recruited cases. RESULTS: Of 121 children autopsied, 64 % were male, median age was 19 months (IQR, 12–45 months). HIV status was available for 97 children, of whom 34 % were HIV infected. Lung pathology was observed in 92 % of cases. Bacterial bronchopneumonia was the most common pathology (50 %) undiagnosed ante-mortem in 69 % of cases. Other pathologies included interstitial pneumonitis (17 %), tuberculosis (TB; 8 %), cytomegalovirus pneumonia (7 %) and pneumocystis Jirovecii pneumonia (5 %). Comorbidity between lung pathology and other communicable and non-communicable diseases was observed in 80 % of cases. Lung tissue from 70 % of TB cases was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis by molecular diagnostic tests. A total of 80 % of TB cases were comorbid with malnutrition and only 10 % of TB cases were on anti-TB therapy when they died. CONCLUSIONS: More proactive testing for bacterial pneumonia and TB in paediatric inpatient settings is needed.

Type: Article
Title: Burden of respiratory tract infections at post mortem in Zambian children
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12916-016-0645-z
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-016-0645-z
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © The Author(s) 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Keywords: Autopsy, Post mortem, Children, Zambia, Africa, Tuberculosis, Pneumonia, Cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis, Jirovecii pneumonia
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1504014
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