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X-ray spectromicroscopy investigation of soft and hard breakdown in RRAM devices

Carta, D; Guttmann, P; Regoutz, A; Khiat, A; Serb, A; Gupta, I; Mehonic, A; ... Prodromakis, T; + view all (2016) X-ray spectromicroscopy investigation of soft and hard breakdown in RRAM devices. Nanotechnology , 27 (34) , Article 345705. 10.1088/0957-4484/27/34/345705. Green open access

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Abstract

Resistive random access memory (RRAM) is considered an attractive candidate for next generation memory devices due to its competitive scalability, low-power operation and high switching speed. The technology however, still faces several challenges that overall prohibit its industrial translation, such as low yields, large switching variability and ultimately hard breakdown due to long-term operation or high-voltage biasing. The latter issue is of particular interest, because it ultimately leads to device failure. In this work, we have investigated the physicochemical changes that occur within RRAM devices as a consequence of soft and hard breakdown by combining full-field transmission x-ray microscopy with soft x-ray spectroscopic analysis performed on lamella samples. The high lateral resolution of this technique (down to 25 nm) allows the investigation of localized nanometric areas underneath permanent damage of the metal top electrode. Results show that devices after hard breakdown present discontinuity in the active layer, Pt inclusions and the formation of crystalline phases such as rutile, which indicates that the temperature increased locally up to 1000 K.

Type: Article
Title: X-ray spectromicroscopy investigation of soft and hard breakdown in RRAM devices
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/27/34/345705
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/27/34/345705
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. Original content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence (CC BY 3.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/). Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.
Keywords: x-ray spectromicroscopy, titanium dioxide, resistive memory, breakdown
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Chemical Engineering
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1503832
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