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Impact of rare variants in ARHGAP29 to the etiology of oral clefts: role of loss-of-function vs missense variants

Savastano, CP; Brito, LA; Faria, ÁC; Setó-Salvia, N; Peskett, E; Musso, CM; Alvizi, L; ... Passos-Bueno, MR; + view all (2017) Impact of rare variants in ARHGAP29 to the etiology of oral clefts: role of loss-of-function vs missense variants. Clinical Genetics , 91 (5) pp. 683-689. 10.1111/cge.12823. Green open access

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Abstract

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) is a prevalent, complex congenital malformation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on NSCL/P have consistently identified association for the 1p22 region, in which ARHGAP29 has emerged as the main candidate gene. ARHGAP29 re-sequencing studies in NSCL/P patients have identified rare variants; however, their clinical impact is still unclear. In this study we identified 10 rare variants in ARHGAP29, including five missense, one in-frame deletion, and four loss-of-function (LoF) variants, in a cohort of 188 familial NSCL/P cases. A significant mutational burden was found for LoF (Sequence Kernel Association Test, p = 0.0005) but not for missense variants in ARHGAP29, suggesting that only LoF variants contribute to the etiology of NSCL/P. Penetrance was estimated as 59%, indicating that heterozygous LoF variants in ARHGAP29 confer a moderate risk to NSCL/P. The GWAS hits in IRF6 (rs642961) and 1p22 (rs560426 and rs4147811) do not seem to contribute to the penetrance of the phenotype, based on co-segregation analysis. Our data show that rare variants leading to haploinsufficiency of ARHGAP29 represent an important etiological clefting mechanism, and genetic testing for this gene might be taken into consideration in genetic counseling of familial cases.

Type: Article
Title: Impact of rare variants in ARHGAP29 to the etiology of oral clefts: role of loss-of-function vs missense variants
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/cge.12823
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.12823
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: [FULL CITE], which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.12823. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Keywords: cleft lip and palate; GWAS;haploinsufficiency; IRF6; nonsense mutations; penetrance; rare variants; 1p22
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Movement Neurosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1502133
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