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Management of Cushing syndrome in children and adolescents: experience of a single tertiary centre

Güemes, M; Murray, PG; Brain, CE; Spoudeas, HA; Peters, CJ; Hindmarsh, PC; Dattani, MT; (2016) Management of Cushing syndrome in children and adolescents: experience of a single tertiary centre. European Journal of Pediatrics , 175 (7) pp. 967-976. 10.1007/s00431-016-2727-5. Green open access

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Abstract

The diagnosis and management of paediatric Cushing syndrome (CS) is highly challenging. This study aims to characterise its presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome by a retrospective case review of 30 patients (14 females) followed at a single tertiary paediatric endocrinology centre over a 30-year period. At presentation, median age was 8.9 years (0.2-15.5) and the commonest manifestations were weight gain (23/30), hirsutism (17/30), acne (15/30) and hypertension (15/30). Growth retardation was present in 11/30. Median body mass index (BMI) was +2.1 standard deviation score (SDS) (-6.5 to +4.6). Urinary free cortisol (UFC) was abnormal in 17/18 (94 %), midnight cortisol in 27/27 (100 %) and low-dose dexamethasone suppression (LDDS) test in 20/20 (100 %). High-dose dexamethasone suppression (HDDS) test was abnormal in 6/6 (100 %) of adrenal tumours, 1/10 (10 %) of Cushing disease (CD) and 1/2 (50 %) of ectopic tumours. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) identified five CD cases and one ectopic tumour. All patients underwent surgery and subsequently required cortisol replacement. Final diagnoses were 16 CD, 11 adrenal disease, 2 ectopic ACTH-secreting lesions and 1 case of unidentified aetiology. One year post-diagnosis, median BMI was 0.5 SDS (-2.5 to +3.7), hypertension was present in 4/14 (28 %), and 43 % (12/30) of individuals were off hydrocortisone. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of the clinical manifestations differs from that reported in other series. Screening tests were highly sensitive, with UFC, midnight cortisol and LDDS performing well. One year post-treatment, BMI and BP normalised in the majority of patients and almost half of them were able to discontinue replacement hydrocortisone. WHAT IS KNOWN: •Cushing syndrome is an extremely rare entity in the paediatric and adolescent age groups, so not many cohort studies have been published in this population. •Several tests can be employed to firstly diagnose hypercortisolaemia and secondly identify the source of origin of it. The efficacy and safety of these tests in children is still uncertain. What is New: •This study includes cases due to the different aetiologies of endogenous hypercortisolaemia (pituitary, adrenal and ectopic hypercortisolaemia) allowing us to compare the differences in presentation, diagnosis, management and long-term outcome between the groups. •There is a difference in the prevalence of Cushing syndrome symptoms and in the performance of the tests in our cohort compared to previously published studies in the literature.

Type: Article
Title: Management of Cushing syndrome in children and adolescents: experience of a single tertiary centre
Location: Germany
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s00431-016-2727-5
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1007/s00431-016-2727-5
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016. All rights reserved. The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-016-2727-5
Keywords: Cushing disease, Cushing syndrome, Hormone replacement therapy, Pituitary function tests
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1494675
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