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Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with unexplained low-level viraemia.

Nightingale, S; Geretti, AM; Beloukas, A; Fisher, M; Winston, A; Else, L; Nelson, M; ... Khoo, S; + view all (2016) Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with unexplained low-level viraemia. Journal of NeuroVirology , 22 (6) pp. 852-860. 10.1007/s13365-016-0448-1. Green open access

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Abstract

The central nervous system has been proposed as a sanctuary site where HIV can escape antiretroviral control and develop drug resistance. HIV-1 RNA can be at higher levels in CSF than plasma, termed CSF/plasma discordance. We aimed to examine whether discordance in CSF is associated with low level viraemia (LLV) in blood. In this MRC-funded multicentre study, we prospectively recruited patients with LLV, defined as one or more episode of unexplained plasma HIV-1 RNA within 12 months, and undertook CSF examination. Separately, we prospectively collected CSF from patients undergoing lumbar puncture for a clinical indication. Patients with durable suppression of viraemia and no evidence of CNS infection were identified as controls from this group. Factors associated with CSF/plasma HIV-1 discordance overall were examined. One hundred fifty-three patients were recruited across 13 sites; 40 with LLV and 113 undergoing clinical lumbar puncture. Seven of the 40 (18 %) patients with LLV had CSF/plasma discordance, which was significantly more than 0/43 (0 %) with durable suppression in blood from the clinical group (p = 0.005). Resistance associated mutations were shown in six CSF samples from discordant patients with LLV (one had insufficient sample for testing), which affected antiretroviral therapy at sampling in five. Overall discordance was present in 20/153 (13 %) and was associated with nadir CD4 but not antiretroviral concentrations in plasma or CSF. CSF/plasma discordance is observed in patients with LLV and is associated with antiretroviral resistance associated mutations in CSF. The implications for clinical practice require further investigation.

Type: Article
Title: Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in patients with unexplained low-level viraemia.
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s13365-016-0448-1
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-016-0448-1
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Keywords: Antiretroviral agents, Central nervous system, Cerebrospinal fluid, Drug resistance, HIV, Viral
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1494565
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