UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II study

Stockton, JC; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Mindell, JS; Brunner, EJ; Shelton, NJ; (2016) Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II study. BMC Public Health , 16 , Article 416. 10.1186/s12889-016-3012-2. Green open access

[img]
Preview
Text
Stockton et al 2016 Development of a novel walkability index.pdf

Download (851kB) | Preview

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix-common components of walkability indices-differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study.  METHODS: A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i) 21,140 output areas, (ii) 633 wards and (iii) 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003-04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0) based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. RESULTS: There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92-0.98), and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39-0.70). After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9) than those in the least walkable. CONCLUSIONS: Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This walkability index could help urban planners identify and design neighbourhoods in London with characteristics more supportive of walking, thereby promoting public health.

Type: Article
Title: Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3012-2
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-016-3012-2
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016 Stockton et al. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
Keywords: Geographic information systems, London, Neighbourhood, Walkability index, Walking
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Epidemiology and Health > Epidemiology and Public Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of Arts and Humanities
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of Arts and Humanities > Dept of Information Studies
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1493096
Downloads since deposit
107Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item