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Physiological vortices in the sinuses of Valsalva: An in vitro approach for bio-prosthetic valves

Toninato, R; Salmon, J; Susin, FM; Ducci, A; Burriesci, G; (2016) Physiological vortices in the sinuses of Valsalva: An in vitro approach for bio-prosthetic valves. Journal of Biomechanics , 49 (13) pp. 2635-2643. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.05.027. Green open access

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Abstract

Purpose: The physiological flow dynamics within the Valsalva sinuses, in terms of global and local parameters, are still not fully understood. This study attempts to identify the physiological conditions as closely as possible, and to give an explanation of the different and sometime contradictory results in literature. Methods: An in vitro approach was implemented for testing porcine bio-prosthetic valves operating within different aortic root configurations. All tests were performed on a pulse duplicator, under physiological pressure and flow conditions. The fluid dynamics established in the various cases were analysed by means of 2D Particle Image Velocimetry, and related with the achieved hydrodynamic performance. Results: Each configuration is associated with substantially different flow dynamics, which significantly affects the valve performance. The configuration most closely replicating healthy native anatomy was characterised by the best hemodynamic performance, and any mismatch in size and position between the valve and the root produced substantial modification of the fluid dynamics downstream of the valve, hindering the hydrodynamic performance of the system. The worst conditions were observed for a configuration characterised by the total absence of the Valsalva sinuses. Conclusion: This study provides an explanation for the different vortical structures described in the literature downstream of bioprosthetic valves, enlightening the experimental complications in valve testing. Most importantly, the results clearly identify the fluid mechanisms promoted by the Valsalva sinuses to enhance the ejection and closing phases, and this study exposes the importance of an optimal integration of the valve and root, to operate as a single system.

Type: Article
Title: Physiological vortices in the sinuses of Valsalva: An in vitro approach for bio-prosthetic valves
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.05.027
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiomech.2016.05.027
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Valsalva sinuses, Bioprosthetic valve, PIV, In vitro testing
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1492888
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