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The association between olfactory bulb volume, cognitive dysfunction, physical disability and depression in multiple sclerosis

Yaldizli, Ö; Penner, IK; Yonekawa, T; Naegelin, Y; Kuhle, J; Pardini, M; Chard, DT; ... Sprenger, T; + view all (2016) The association between olfactory bulb volume, cognitive dysfunction, physical disability and depression in multiple sclerosis. European Journal of Neurology , 23 (3) pp. 510-519. 10.1111/ene.12891. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Olfactory bulb atrophy is associated with cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, and with major depression. It has been suggested that olfactory bulb atrophy or dysfunction is therefore a marker of neurodegeneration. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is now also recognized as having a significant neurodegenerative component. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate associations between physical and cognitive disability, depression and olfactory bulb volume in MS. METHODS: In total, 146 patients with MS (mean age 49.0 ± 10.9 years, disease duration 21.2 ± 9.3 years, median Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 3.0 (range 0-7.5), 103 relapsing-remitting, 35 secondary progressive and eight primary progressive MS) underwent a standardized neurological examination, comprehensive neuropsychological testing and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); data of 27 healthy people served as age- and gender-matched control subjects. The olfactory bulb was semi-automatically segmented on high-resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI. RESULTS: Mean olfactory bulb volume was lower in MS patients than healthy controls (183.9 ± 40.1 vs. 209.2 ± 59.3 μl; P = 0.018 adjusted to intracranial volume). Olfactory bulb volume was similar across clinical disease subtypes and did not correlate with cognitive performance, EDSS scores or total proton density/T2 white matter lesion volume. However, in progressive MS, the mean olfactory bulb volume correlated with depression scores (Spearman's rho = -0.38, P < 0.05) confirmed using a multivariate linear regression analysis including cognitive fatigue scores. This association was not observed in relapsing-remitting MS. CONCLUSION: Olfactory bulb volume was lower in MS than in healthy controls. Olfactory bulb volume does not seem to mirror cognitive impairment in MS; however, it is associated with higher depression scores in progressive MS.

Type: Article
Title: The association between olfactory bulb volume, cognitive dysfunction, physical disability and depression in multiple sclerosis
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/ene.12891
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.12891
Language: English
Additional information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Yaldizli, Ö; Penner, IK; Yonekawa, T; Naegelin, Y; Kuhle, J; Pardini, M; Chard, DT; (2016) The association between olfactory bulb volume, cognitive dysfunction, physical disability and depression in multiple sclerosis. European Journal of Neurology , 23 (3) pp. 510-519, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.12891. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving (http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-820227.html#terms).
Keywords: cognitive impairment, depression, fatigue, magnetic resonance imaging, multiple sclerosis, olfactory bulb volume
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neuroinflammation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1482202
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