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Composition of Byzantine glasses from Umm el-Jimal, northeast Jordan: Insights into glass origins and recycling

Al-Bashaireh, K; Al-Mustafa, S; Freestone, IC; Al-Housan, A; (2016) Composition of Byzantine glasses from Umm el-Jimal, northeast Jordan: Insights into glass origins and recycling. Journal of Cultural Heritage , 21 pp. 809-818. 10.1016/j.culher.2016.04.008. Green open access

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Abstract

Twenty glass samples collected from four structures at Umm el-Jimal, northeast Jordan were analysed using the Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA). Except one ash-soda-lime-silica glass, all were natron-soda-lime-silica glasses of Levantine origin. Most of the glasses compositionally resemble glass from the Byzantine tank furnaces at Apollonia-Arsuf (Arsuf), but four with lower lime are closer to Umayyad period production at Bet Eli’ezer (Hadera). The paper presents diagnostic information indicating recycling in a Diagnostic Recycling Table (DRT) in which the analyses are ranked in a descending order of K2O, a key contaminant in the recycling process. This allows the comparison of a range of contaminant elements and it is observed that in general glass contaminated with fuel ash components K2O, P2O5 and CaO are also richer in transition metal oxides CuO, PbO, FeO and MnO, confirming that both sets of elements are important in identifying recycled glass. Chlorine is also identified as a component modified by recycling. The results ascertain that Umm el-Jimal was part of a major system of glass recycling in the Byzantine period, and emphasise the importance of recycled glass in its supply, in spite of its relative proximity to the location of raw glass production on the Syro-Palestinian coast.

Type: Article
Title: Composition of Byzantine glasses from Umm el-Jimal, northeast Jordan: Insights into glass origins and recycling
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.culher.2016.04.008
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.culher.2016.04.008
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2016. This manuscript version is published under a Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial Non-derivative 4.0 International licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This licence allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for personal and non-commercial use providing author and publisher attribution is clearly stated. Further details about CC BY licences are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0.
Keywords: Glass, Byzantine, Jordan, Umayyad, Electron microprobe analysis
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of SandHS > Institute of Archaeology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of SandHS > Institute of Archaeology > Institute of Archaeology Gordon Square
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1478388
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