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High-Throughput Synthesis, Screening, and Scale-Up of Optimized Conducting Indium Tin Oxides

Marchand, P; Makwana, NM; Tighe, CJ; Gruar, RI; Parkin, IP; Carmalt, CJ; Darr, JA; (2016) High-Throughput Synthesis, Screening, and Scale-Up of Optimized Conducting Indium Tin Oxides. ACS Combinational Science , 18 (2) pp. 130-137. 10.1021/acscombsci.5b00166. Green open access

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Abstract

A high-throughput optimization and subsequent scale-up methodology has been used for the synthesis of conductive tin-doped indium oxide (known as ITO) nanoparticles. ITO nanoparticles with up to 12 at % Sn were synthesized using a laboratory scale (15 g/hour by dry mass) continuous hydrothermal synthesis process, and the as-synthesized powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Under standard synthetic conditions, either the cubic In2O3 phase, or a mixture of InO(OH) and In2O3 phases were observed in the as-synthesized materials. These materials were pressed into compacts and heat-treated in an inert atmosphere, and their electrical resistivities were then measured using the Van der Pauw method. Sn doping yielded resistivities of ∼10(-2) Ω cm for most samples with the lowest resistivity of 6.0 × 10(-3) Ω cm (exceptionally conductive for such pressed nanopowders) at a Sn concentration of 10 at %. Thereafter, the optimized lab-scale composition was scaled-up using a pilot-scale continuous hydrothermal synthesis process (at a rate of 100 g/hour by dry mass), and a comparable resistivity of 9.4 × 10(-3) Ω cm was obtained. The use of the synthesized TCO nanomaterials for thin film fabrication was finally demonstrated by deposition of a transparent, conductive film using a simple spin-coating process.

Type: Article
Title: High-Throughput Synthesis, Screening, and Scale-Up of Optimized Conducting Indium Tin Oxides
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1021/acscombsci.5b00166
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.5b00166
Language: English
Additional information: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Combinational Science, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acscombsci.5b00166.
Keywords: continuous hydrothermal, indium tin oxide, nanoparticles, scale-up, transparent conducting oxides
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1475671
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