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Microvesicles and exosomes: new players in metabolic and cardiovascular disease

Lawson, C; Vicencio, JM; Yellon, DM; Davidson, SM; (2016) Microvesicles and exosomes: new players in metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Endocrinology , 228 (2) R57-R71. 10.1530/JOE-15-0201. Green open access

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Abstract

The past decade has witnessed an exponential increase in the number of publications referring to extracellular vesicles (EVs). For many years considered to be extracellular debris, EVs are now seen as novel mediators of endocrine signalling via cell-to-cell communication. With the capability of transferring proteins and nucleic acids from one cell to another, they have become an attractive focus of research for different pathological settings and are now regarded as both mediators and biomarkers of disease including cardio-metabolic disease. They also offer therapeutic potential as signalling agents capable of targeting tissues or cells with specific peptides or miRNAs. In this review, we focus on the role that microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes, the two most studied classes of EV, have in diabetes, cardiovascular disease, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathies, and polycystic ovary syndrome. We also provide an overview of current developments in MV/exosome isolation techniques from plasma and other fluids, comparing different available commercial and non-commercial methods. We describe different techniques for their optical/biochemical characterization and quantitation. We also review the signalling pathways that exosomes and MVs activate in target cells and provide some insight into their use as biomarkers or potential therapeutic agents. In summary, we give an updated focus on the role that these exciting novel nanoparticles offer for the endocrine community.

Type: Article
Title: Microvesicles and exosomes: new players in metabolic and cardiovascular disease
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1530/JOE-15-0201
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-15-0201
Language: English
Additional information: Disclaimer: this is not the definitive version of record of this article.This manuscript has been accepted for publication in Journal of Endocrinology, but the version presented here has not yet been copy-edited, formatted or proofed. Consequently, Bioscientifica accepts no responsibility for any errors or omissions it may contain. The definitive version is now freely available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-15-0201. Published on 01/02/16.
Keywords: diabetes, endothelium, exosomes, heart, microRNA, microvesicles, nanoparticles
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Oncology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Pop Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Pre-clinical and Fundamental Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1474992
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