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Poly(propylene glycol) and urethane dimethacrylates improve conversion of dental composites and reveal complexity of cytocompatibility testing

Walters, NJ; Xia, W; Salih, V; Ashley, PF; Young, AM; (2016) Poly(propylene glycol) and urethane dimethacrylates improve conversion of dental composites and reveal complexity of cytocompatibility testing. Dental Materials 10.1016/j.dental.2015.11.017. Green open access

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Abstract

Objectives To determine the effects of various monomers on conversion and cytocompatibility of dental composites and to improve these properties without detrimentally affecting mechanical properties, depth of cure and shrinkage. Methods Composites containing urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) or bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA) with poly(propylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PPGDMA) or triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) were characterized using the following techniques: conversion (FTIR at 1 and 4 mm depths), depth of cure (BS EN ISO 4049:2009 and FTIR), shrinkage (BS EN ISO 17304:2013 and FTIR), strength and modulus (biaxial flexural test) and water sorption. Cytocompatibility of composites and their liquid phase components was assessed using three assays (resazurin, WST-8 and MTS). Results UDMA significantly improved conversion, BFS and depth of cure compared to Bis-GMA, without increasing shrinkage. UDMA was cytotoxic at lower concentrations than Bis-GMA, but extracts of Bis-GMA-containing composites were less cytocompatible than of those containing UDMA. PPGDMA improved conversion and depth of cure compared to TEGDMA, without detrimentally affecting shrinkage. TEGDMA was shown by all assays to be highly toxic. Resazurin, but not WST-8 and MTS, suggested that PPGDMA exhibited improved cytocompatibility compared to TEGDMA. Significance The use of UDMA and PPGDMA results in composites with excellent conversion, depth of cure and mechanical properties, without increasing shrinkage. Composites containing UDMA appear to be slightly more cytocompatible than those containing Bis-GMA. These monomers may therefore improve the material properties of dental restorations, particularly bulk fill materials. The effect of diluent monomer on cytocompatibility requires further investigation.

Type: Article
Title: Poly(propylene glycol) and urethane dimethacrylates improve conversion of dental composites and reveal complexity of cytocompatibility testing
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.dental.2015.11.017
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2015.11.017
Language: English
Additional information: © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Dental composite; Dental material; Monomer; Cytocompatibility; Degree of conversion; Polymerization shrinkage; PPGDMA; TEGDMA; UDMA; Bis-GMA
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Biomaterials and Tissue Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > EDI Craniofacial and Development Sci
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1473808
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