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Aortic dissection: simulation tools for disease management and understanding

Alimohammadi, M; (2015) Aortic dissection: simulation tools for disease management and understanding. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

Aortic dissection is a severe cardiovascular pathology in which a tear in the intimal layer of the aortic wall allows blood to flow between the vessel wall layers, forming a 'false lumen'. In type-B aortic dissections, those involving only the descending aorta, the decision to medically manage or surgically intervene is not clear and is highly dependent on the patient. In addition to clinical imaging data, clinicians would benefit greatly from additional physiological data to inform their decision-making process. Computational fluid dynamics methods show promise for providing data on haemodynamic parameters in cardiovascular diseases, which cannot otherwise be predicted or safely measured. The assumptions made in the development of such models have a considerable impact on the accuracy of the results, and thus require careful investigation. Application of appropriate boundary conditions is a challenging but critical component of such models. In the present study, imaging data and invasive pressure measurements from a patient with a type-B aortic dissection were used to assist numerical modelling of the haemodynamics in a dissected aorta. A technique for tuning parameters for coupled Windkessel models was developed and evaluated. Two virtual treatments were modelled and analysed using the developed dynamic boundary conditions. Finally, the influence of wall motion was considered, of which the intimal flap that separates the false lumen from the true lumen, is of particular interest. The present results indicate that dynamic boundary conditions are necessary in order to achieve physiologically meaningful flows and pressures at the boundaries, and hence within the dissected aorta. Additionally, wall motion is of particular importance in the closed regions of the false lumen, wherein rigid wall simulations fail to capture the motion of the fluid due to the elasticity of the vessel wall and intimal flap.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Aortic dissection: simulation tools for disease management and understanding
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Mechanical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1472116
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