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Pushing the Limits of Indoor Localization in Today’s Wi-Fi Networks

Xiong, J; (2015) Pushing the Limits of Indoor Localization in Today’s Wi-Fi Networks. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Wireless networks are ubiquitous nowadays and play an increasingly important role in our everyday lives. Many emerging applications including augmented reality, indoor navigation and human tracking, rely heavily on Wi-Fi, thus requiring an even more sophisticated network. One key component for the success of these applications is accurate localization. While we have GPS in the outdoor environment, indoor localization at a sub-meter granularity remains challenging due to a number of factors, including the presence of strong wireless multipath reflections indoors and the burden of deploying and maintaining any additional location service infrastructure. On the other hand, Wi-Fi technology has developed significantly in the last 15 years evolving from 802.11b/a/g to the latest 802.11n and 802.11ac standards. Single user multiple-input, multiple-output (SU-MIMO) technology has been adopted in 802.11n while multi-user MIMO is introduced in 802.11ac to increase throughput. In Wi-Fi’s development, one interesting trend is the increasing number of antennas attached to a single access point (AP). Another trend is the presence of frequency-agile radios and larger bandwidths in the latest 802.11n/ac standards. These opportunities can be leveraged to increase the accuracy of indoor wireless localization significantly in the two systems proposed in this thesis: ArrayTrack employs multi-antenna APs for angle-of-arrival (AoA) information to localize clients accurately indoors. It is the first indoor Wi-Fi localization system able to achieve below half meter median accuracy. Innovative multipath identification scheme is proposed to handle the challenging multipath issue in indoor environment. ArrayTrack is robust in term of signal to noise ratio, collision and device orientation. ArrayTrack does not require any offline training and the computational load is small, making it a great candidate for real-time location services. With six 8-antenna APs, ArrayTrack is able to achieve a median error of 23 cm indoors in the presence of strong multipath reflections in a typical office environment. ToneTrack is a fine-grained indoor localization system employing time difference of arrival scheme (TDoA). ToneTrack uses a novel channel combination algorithm to increase effective bandwidth without increasing the radio’s sampling rate, for higher resolution time of arrival (ToA) information. A new spectrum identification scheme is proposed to retrieve useful information from a ToA profile even when the overall profile is mostly inaccurate. The triangle inequality property is then applied to detect and discard the APs whose direct path is 100% blocked. With a combination of only three 20 MHz channels in the 2.4 GHz band, ToneTrack is able to achieve below one meter median error, outperforming the traditional super-resolution ToA schemes significantly.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Pushing the Limits of Indoor Localization in Today’s Wi-Fi Networks
Event: UCL (University College London)
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Computer Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1470731
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