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New vascular classification of port-wine stains: improving prediction of Sturge-Weber risk

Waelchli, R; Aylett, SE; Robinson, K; Chong, WK; Martinez, AE; Kinsler, VA; (2014) New vascular classification of port-wine stains: improving prediction of Sturge-Weber risk. British Journal of Dermatology , 171 (4) 861 - 867. 10.1111/bjd.13203. Green open access

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Abstract

Background Facial port-wine stains (PWSs) are usually isolated findings; however, when associated with cerebral and ocular vascular malformations they form part of the classical triad of Sturge–Weber syndrome (SWS). Objectives To evaluate the associations between the phenotype of facial PWS and the diagnosis of SWS in a cohort with a high rate of SWS. Methods Records were reviewed of all 192 children with a facial PWS seen in 2011–13. Adverse outcome measures were clinical (seizures, abnormal neurodevelopment, glaucoma) and radiological [abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)], modelled by multivariate logistic regression. Results The best predictor of adverse outcomes was a PWS involving any part of the forehead, delineated at its inferior border by a line joining the outer canthus of the eye to the top of the ear, and including the upper eyelid. This involves all three divisions of the trigeminal nerve, but corresponds well to the embryonic vascular development of the face. Bilateral distribution was not an independently significant phenotypic feature. Abnormal MRI was a better predictor of all clinical adverse outcome measures than PWS distribution; however, for practical reasons guidelines based on clinical phenotype are proposed. Conclusions Facial PWS distribution appears to follow the embryonic vasculature of the face, rather than the trigeminal nerve. We propose that children with a PWS on any part of the ‘forehead’ should have an urgent ophthalmology review and a brain MRI. A prospective study has been established to test the validity of these guidelines.

Type: Article
Title: New vascular classification of port-wine stains: improving prediction of Sturge-Weber risk
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/bjd.13203
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjd.13203
Language: English
Additional information: © The Authors. British Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Association of Dermatologists. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Genetics and Genomic Medicine Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1456756
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