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The Maristan stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses

Saldivia, S; Runte-Geidel, A; Grandon, P; Torres-Gonzalez, F; Xavier, M; Antonioli, C; Ballester, DA; ... King, M; + view all (2014) The Maristan stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses. BMC Psychiatry , 14 , Article 182. 10.1186/1471-244X-14-182. Green open access

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Abstract

Background People with schizophrenia face prejudice and discrimination from a number of sources including professionals and families. The degree of stigma perceived and experienced varies across cultures and communities. We aimed to develop a cross-cultural measure of the stigma perceived by people with schizophrenia. Method Items for the scale were developed from qualitative group interviews with people with schizophrenia in six countries. The scale was then applied in face-to-face interviews with 164 participants, 103 of which were repeated after 30 days. Principal Axis Factoring and Promax rotation evaluated the structure of the scale; Horn’s parallel combined with bootstrapping determined the number of factors; and intra-class correlation assessed test-retest reliability. Results The final scale has 31 items and four factors: informal social networks, socio-institutional, health professionals and self-stigma. Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84 for the Factor 1; 0.81 for Factor 2; 0.74 for Factor 3, and 0.75 for Factor 4. Correlation matrix among factors revealed that most were in the moderate range [0.31-0.49], with the strongest occurring between perception of stigma in the informal network and self-stigma and there was also a weaker correlation between stigma from health professionals and self-stigma. Test-retest reliability was highest for informal networks [ICC 0.76 [0.67 -0.83]] and self-stigma [ICC 0.74 [0.64-0.81]]. There were no significant differences in the scoring due to sex or age. Service users in Argentina had the highest scores in almost all dimensions. Conclusions The MARISTAN stigma scale is a reliable measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and related psychoses across several cultures. A confirmatory factor analysis is needed to assess the stability of its factor structure.

Type: Article
Title: The Maristan stigma scale: a standardized international measure of the stigma of schizophrenia and other psychoses
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/1471-244X-14-182
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-14-182
Language: English
Additional information: © 2014 Saldivia et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. PubMed ID: 24943228
Keywords: Stigma, Questionnaire, Psychometrics, Rating scale schizophrenia
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1454171
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