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High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis

Jindani, A; Harrison, TS; Nunn, AJ; Phillips, PP; Churchyard, GJ; Charalambous, S; Hatherill, M; ... RIFAQUIN Trial, Team; + view all (2014) High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis. New England Journal of Medicine , 371 (17) pp. 1599-1608. 10.1056/NEJMoa1314210. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis regimens that are shorter and simpler than the current 6-month daily regimen are needed. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with newly diagnosed, smear-positive, drug-sensitive tuberculosis to one of three regimens: a control regimen that included 2 months of ethambutol, isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide administered daily followed by 4 months of daily isoniazid and rifampicin; a 4-month regimen in which the isoniazid in the control regimen was replaced by moxifloxacin administered daily for 2 months followed by moxifloxacin and 900 mg of rifapentine administered twice weekly for 2 months; or a 6-month regimen in which isoniazid was replaced by daily moxifloxacin for 2 months followed by one weekly dose of both moxifloxacin and 1200 mg of rifapentine for 4 months. Sputum specimens were examined on microscopy and after culture at regular intervals. The primary end point was a composite treatment failure and relapse, with noninferiority based on a margin of 6 percentage points and 90% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 827 patients from South Africa, Zimbabwe, Botswana, and Zambia; 28% of patients were coinfected with the human immunodefiency virus. In the per-protocol analysis, the proportion of patients with an unfavorable response was 4.9% in the control group, 3.2% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, -1.8 percentage points; 90% confidence interval [CI], -6.1 to 2.4), and 18.2% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.6 percentage points; 90% CI, 8.1 to 19.1). In the modified intention-to-treat analysis these proportions were 14.4% in the control group, 13.7% in the 6-month group (adjusted difference from control, 0.4 percentage points; 90% CI, -4.7 to 5.6), and 26.9% in the 4-month group (adjusted difference from control, 13.1 percentage points; 90% CI, 6.8 to 19.4). CONCLUSIONS: The 6-month regimen that included weekly administration of high-dose rifapentine and moxifloxacin was as effective as the control regimen. The 4-month regimen was not noninferior to the control regimen. (Funded by the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership and the Wellcome Trust; RIFAQUIN Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN44153044.).

Type: Article
Title: High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1314210
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1314210
Language: English
Keywords: Adolescent, Adult, Antitubercular Agents, Coinfection, Drug Administration Schedule, Drug Therapy, Combination, Ethambutol, Female, Fluoroquinolones, HIV Seropositivity, Humans, Isoniazid, Kaplan-Meier Estimate, Male, Middle Aged, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pyrazinamide, Rifampin, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, Young Adult
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1453260
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