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Assessment of the composition and condition of animation cels made from cellulose acetate

Giachet, MT; Schilling, M; Mazurek, J; Khanjian, H; Learner, T; McCormick, K; Richardson, E; (2014) Assessment of the composition and condition of animation cels made from cellulose acetate. Polymer Degradation and Stability , 107 223 - 230. 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.03.009. Green open access

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Abstract

Cellulose diacetate and cellulose triacetate cels from animated feature films in the collection of the Walt Disney Animation Research Library were tested by several analytical techniques in order to assess their composition and look for evidence of degradation. Triphenyl phosphate and a range of phthalate plasticizers were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, which also showed evidence that evaporation of more volatile plasticizers may have occurred. Plasticizer content measurements by solvent extraction, found to be more accurate than volatile content data from thermogravimetric analysis, revealed there was less residual plasticizer in triacetate cels compared to diacetate cels. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, performed to quantify the acetyl content of cels after removal of plasticizers by solvent extraction, revealed some evidence for hydrolysis of the oldest cels, although the reduction could be related to original variations in acetate content from the polymer manufacturers. Use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to measure deacetylation of the cellulose acetate polymer based on the hydroxyl to carbonyl peak area ratio proved less satisfactory. Moreover, because the cels cannot be measured directly due to interference from plasticizers, non-invasive assessment of deacetylation using a portable instrument would be impossible. The results from this analytical survey provide an important point of reference against which long-term changes in cel composition can be monitored. © 2014 The J. Paul Getty Trust. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Type: Article
Title: Assessment of the composition and condition of animation cels made from cellulose acetate
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.03.009
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2014.0...
Additional information: © 2014 The J. Paul Getty Trust. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Published under a Creative Commons license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/)
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Dept of History of Art
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1447742
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