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A comparative study of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis in epilepsy and dementia

Bandopadhyay, R; Liu, JYW; Sisodiya, SM; Thom, M; (2014) A comparative study of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis in epilepsy and dementia. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology , 40 (2) 177 - 190. 10.1111/nan.12087. Green open access

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Abstract

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is long-recognized in association with epilepsy (HSE) and more recently in the context of cognitive decline or dementia in the elderly (HSD), in some cases as a component of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-temporal lobe dementia (FTLD). There is an increased risk of seizures in AD and spontaneous epileptiform discharges in the dentate gyrus of transgenic AD models; epilepsy can be associated with an age-accelerated increase in AD-type pathology and cognitive decline. The convergence between these disease processes could be related to hippocampal pathology. HSE typically shows re-organization of both excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks in the dentate gyrus, and is considered to be relevant to hippocampal excitability. We sought to compare the pathology of HSE and HSD, focusing on re-organization in the dentate gyrus. Methods: In nine post mortem cases with HSE and bilateral damage, 18 HSD and 11 controls we carried out immunostaining for mossy fibres (dynorphin), and interneuronal networks (NPY, calbindin and calretinin) on sections from the mid-hippocampal body. Fibre sprouting (FS) or loss of expression in the dentate gyrus was semi-quantitatively graded from grade 0 (normal) to grade 3 (marked alteration). Results: Significantly more re-organization was seen with all four markers in the HSE than HSD group (P < 0.01). Mild alterations were noted in HSD group with dynorphin (FS in 3 cases), calretinin (FS in 6 cases), NPY (FS in 11 cases) and calbindin (loss in 10 cases). In eight HSD cases, alteration was seen with more than one antibody but in no cases were the highest grades seen. We also noted NPY and, to a lesser extent, calretinin labelling of Hirano bodies in CA1 of AD cases and some older controls, but not in HSE. Conclusion: Reorganization of excitatory and inhibitory networks in the dentate gyrus is more typical of HSE. Subtle alterations in HSD may be a result of increased hippocampal excitability, including unrecognized seizure activity. An unexpected finding was the identification of NPY-positive Hirano bodies in HSD but not HSE, which may be a consequence of the relative vulnerabilities of interneurons in these conditions.

Type: Article
Title: A comparative study of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal sclerosis in epilepsy and dementia
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1111/nan.12087
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12087
Language: English
Additional information: © 2013 The Authors. Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Neuropathological Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Keywords: Dementia, Dentate gyrus, Epilepsy, Hippocampal sclerosis, Hirano bodies, Synaptic reorganization
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1424608
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