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Prospective Association of Morning Salivary Cortisol with Depressive Symptoms in Mid-Life: A Life-Course Study

Geoffroy, MC; Hertzman, C; Li, L; Power, C; (2013) Prospective Association of Morning Salivary Cortisol with Depressive Symptoms in Mid-Life: A Life-Course Study. PLoS One , 8 (11) , Article e77603. 10.1371/journal.pone.0077603. Green open access

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Abstract

Objective Associations of cortisol and depression vary at different life-stages, yet population-based, prospective studies are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of morning cortisol with depressive symptoms in mid-life taking account of lifetime psychological health. Methods Participants were 5,403 men and women from the 1958 British Birth Cohort whose salivary cortisol was assessed at 45y (45min after waking (T1) and 3h later (T2)) and who completed the 5-item Mental-Health Index (MHI-5) about depressive symptoms at age 50y. Lifetime psychological health was identified from child and adult measures. Results For women, higher T2 cortisol at 45y predicted depression (MHI-5 scores ≤52) at 50y (odds ratio [OR]=1.17; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.05,1.30 per standard deviation increase in T2 cortisol), attenuating when adjusted for current (45y) and previous (7-42y) psychological health (OR=1.11; 95% CI 0.98, 1.24). Similarly, an association in women of flatter cortisol delta (T2-T1) with depressive symptoms at 50y weakened after adjustment for current (45y) and previous (7-42y) psychological health. For men, lower T2 cortisol at 45y predicted greater depressive symptoms at 50y and the association strengthened when adjusted for lifetime psychological health. Likewise, lower cortisol AUC predicted higher risk of depression for men after adjusting for prior psychological health (OR=0.85; CI 0.72, 1.00). Associations were largely unaltered by control for covariates. Conclusions In women, higher cortisol in late morning at 45y is prospectively associated with depressive symptoms at 50y through a link with lifetime psychological health. In men, lower cortisol predicts subsequent symptoms, independent of depressive history.

Type: Article
Title: Prospective Association of Morning Salivary Cortisol with Depressive Symptoms in Mid-Life: A Life-Course Study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077603
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077603
Language: English
Additional information: © 2013 Geoffroy et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Population, Policy and Practice Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1415211
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