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CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma

Neselius, S; Brisby, H; Theodorsson, A; Blennow, K; Zetterberg, H; Marcusson, J; (2012) CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma. PLoS One , 7 (4) , Article e33606. 10.1371/journal.pone.0033606. Green open access

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Abstract

Background Sports-related head trauma is common but still there is no established laboratory test used in the diagnostics of minimal or mild traumatic brain injuries. Further the effects of recurrent head trauma on brain injury markers are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Olympic (amateur) boxing and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) brain injury biomarkers. Methods The study was designed as a prospective cohort study. Thirty Olympic boxers with a minimum of 45 bouts and 25 non-boxing matched controls were included in the study. CSF samples were collected by lumbar puncture 1–6 days after a bout and after a rest period for at least 14 days. The controls were tested once. Biomarkers for acute and chronic brain injury were analysed. Results NFL (mean ± SD, 532±553 vs 135±51 ng/L p = 0.001), GFAP (496±238 vs 247±147 ng/L p<0.001), T-tau (58±26 vs 49±21 ng/L p<0.025) and S-100B (0.76±0.29 vs 0.60±0.23 ng/L p = 0.03) concentrations were significantly increased after boxing compared to controls. NFL (402±434 ng/L p = 0.004) and GFAP (369±113 ng/L p = 0.001) concentrations remained elevated after the rest period. Conclusion Increased CSF levels of T-tau, NFL, GFAP, and S-100B in >80% of the boxers demonstrate that both the acute and the cumulative effect of head trauma in Olympic boxing may induce CSF biomarker changes that suggest minor central nervous injuries. The lack of normalization of NFL and GFAP after the rest period in a subgroup of boxers may indicate ongoing degeneration. The recurrent head trauma in boxing may be associated with increased risk of chronic traumatic brain injury.

Type: Article
Title: CSF-biomarkers in Olympic boxing: diagnosis and effects of repetitive head trauma
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033606
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0033606
Language: English
Additional information: © 2012 Neselius et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. PMCID: PMC3319096
Keywords: Adolescent, Adult, Biological Markers, Boxing, Case-Control Studies, Craniocerebral Trauma, Female, Follow-Up Studies, Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Humans, Male, Nerve Growth Factors, Prognosis, Prospective Studies, Questionnaires, S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit, S100 Proteins, Transcription Factors, Young Adult, tau Proteins
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1411975
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