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Efficient human cytomegalovirus reactivation is maturation dependent in the Langerhans dendritic cell lineage and can be studied using a CD14+ experimental latency model

Huang, MM; Kew, VG; Jestice, K; Wills, MR; Reeves, MB; (2012) Efficient human cytomegalovirus reactivation is maturation dependent in the Langerhans dendritic cell lineage and can be studied using a CD14+ experimental latency model. Journal of Virology , 86 (16) pp. 8507-8515. 10.1128/JVI.00598-12. Green open access

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Abstract

Studies from a number of laboratories have shown that the myeloid lineage is prominent in human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) latency, reactivation, dissemination, and pathogenesis. Existing as a latent infection in CD34(+) progenitors and circulating CD14(+) monocytes, reactivation is observed upon differentiation to mature macrophage or dendritic cell (DC) phenotypes. Langerhans' cells (LCs) are a subset of periphery resident DCs that represent a DC population likely to encounter HCMV early during primary infection. Furthermore, we have previously shown that CD34(+) derived LCs are a site of HCMV reactivation ex vivo. Accordingly, we have utilized healthy-donor CD34(+) cells to study latency and reactivation of HCMV in LCs. However, the increasing difficulty acquiring healthy-donor CD34(+) cells--particularly from seropositive donors due to the screening regimens used--led us to investigate the use of CD14(+) monocytes to generate LCs. We show here that CD14(+) monocytes cultured with transforming growth factor β generate Langerin-positive DCs (MoLCs). Consistent with observations using CD34(+) derived LCs, only mature MoLCs were permissive for HCMV infection. The lytic infection of mature MoLCs is productive and results in a marked inhibition in the capacity of these cells to promote T cell proliferation. Pertinently, differentiation of experimentally latent monocytes to the MoLC phenotype promotes reactivation in a maturation and interleukin-6 (IL-6)-dependent manner. Intriguingly, however, IL-6-mediated effects were restricted to mature LCs, in contrast to observations with classical CD14(+) derived DCs. Consequently, elucidation of the molecular basis behind the differential response of the two DC subsets should further our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms important for reactivation.

Type: Article
Title: Efficient human cytomegalovirus reactivation is maturation dependent in the Langerhans dendritic cell lineage and can be studied using a CD14+ experimental latency model
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00598-12
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00598-12
Language: English
Keywords: Antigens, CD14, Antigens, CD34, Cell Culture Techniques, Cell Differentiation, Cytomegalovirus, Dendritic Cells, Humans, Monocytes, Virology, Virus Activation, Virus Latency
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1403387
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