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A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy.

Sidhu, MK; Stretton, J; Winston, GP; Bonelli, S; Centeno, M; Vollmar, C; Symms, M; ... Duncan, JS; + view all (2013) A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain , 136 (6) pp. 1868-1888. 10.1093/brain/awt099. Green open access

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Abstract

Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis (24 left) and 26 healthy control subjects. All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. A blocked analysis was used to investigate activations during encoding and neural correlates of subsequent memory were investigated using an event-related analysis. Event-related activations were then correlated with out-of-scanner verbal and visual memory scores. During word encoding, control subjects activated the left prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis showed significant additional right temporal and extra-temporal activations. Control subjects displayed subsequent verbal memory effects within left parahippocampal gyrus, left orbitofrontal cortex and fusiform gyrus whereas patients with left hippocampal sclerosis activated only right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampus and fusiform gyrus. Correlational analysis showed that patients with left hippocampal sclerosis with better verbal memory additionally activated left orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior hippocampus. During face encoding, control subjects showed right lateralized prefrontal cortex and bilateral hippocampal activations. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed increased temporal activations within the superior temporal gyri bilaterally and no increased extra-temporal areas of activation compared with control subjects. Control subjects showed subsequent visual memory effects within right amygdala, hippocampus, fusiform gyrus and orbitofrontal cortex. Patients with right hippocampal sclerosis showed subsequent visual memory effects within right posterior hippocampus, parahippocampal and fusiform gyri, and predominantly left hemisphere extra-temporal activations within the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. Correlational analysis showed that patients with right hippocampal sclerosis with better visual memory activated the amygdala bilaterally, right anterior parahippocampal gyrus and left insula. Right sided extra-temporal areas of reorganization observed in patients with left hippocampal sclerosis during word encoding and bilateral lateral temporal reorganization in patients with right hippocampal sclerosis during face encoding were not associated with subsequent memory formation. Reorganization within the medial temporal lobe, however, is an efficient process. The orbitofrontal cortex is critical to subsequent memory formation in control subjects and patients. Activations within anterior cingulum and insula correlated with better verbal and visual subsequent memory in patients with left and right hippocampal sclerosis, respectively, representing effective extra-temporal recruitment.

Type: Article
Title: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/brain/awt099
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awt099
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: episodic memory, functional MRI, temporal lobe epilepsy
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1393904
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