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Optical Network Design, Modelling and Performance Evaluation for the Upgraded LHC at CERN

Papadopoulos, S; (2013) Optical Network Design, Modelling and Performance Evaluation for the Upgraded LHC at CERN. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London). Green open access

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Abstract

This thesis considers how advances in optical network and optoelectronic technologies may be utilised in particle physics applications. The research is carried out within a certain framework; CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) upgrade. The focus is on the upgrade of the "last-tier" data links, those residing between the last information-processing stage and the accelerator. For that purpose, different network architectures, based on the Passive Optical Network (PON) architectural paradigm, are designed and evaluated. Firstly, a Time-Division Multiplexed (TDM) PON targeting timing, trigger and control applications is designed. The bi-directional, point-to-multipoint nature of the architecture leads to infrastructure efficiency increase. A custom protocol is developed and implemented using FPGAs. It is experimentally verified that the network design can deliver significantly higher data rate than the current infrastructure and meet the stringent latency requirements of the targeted application. Consequently, the design of a network that can be utilised to transmit all types of information at the upgraded LHC, the High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is discussed. The most challenging requirement is that of the high upstream data rate. As WDM offers virtual point-to-point connectivity, the possibility of using a Wavelength-Division Multiplexed (WDM) PON is theoretically investigated. The shortcomings of this solution are identified; these include high cost and complexity, therefore a simpler architecture is designed. This is also based on the PON paradigm and features the use of Reflective Electroabsorption Modulators (REAM) at the front-end (close to the particle collision point). Its performance is experimentally investigated and shown to meet the requirements of a unified architecture at the HL-LHC from a networking perspective. Finally, since the radiation resistance of optoelectronic components used at the front-end is of major importance, the REAM radiation hardness is experimentally investigated. Their radiation resistance limits are established, while new insights into the radiation damage mechanism are gained.

Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Title: Optical Network Design, Modelling and Performance Evaluation for the Upgraded LHC at CERN
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
Language: English
Keywords: Optical Networks, Optoelectronics, LHC
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Electronic and Electrical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1390672
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